PV modules are tested by their manufacturers at STCs of 1000W/m2 solar irradiance and 25oC module temperature. However, the actual operating conditions of theses modules, usually vary from the STCs. In this work, climate data recorded for 8 cities of Nigeria have been used to stimulate the module temperatures and electrical outputs of 3 module types of 100W each. The results gotten were analyzed and the cities with high ambient temperature and low wind speed had high module temperature, lower Voc and efficiency, than the cities with lower ambient temperature and higher wind speed. High solar irradiation cities recorded high Isc and max power. The stimulated results were used to estimate the pv array size for a typical Nigerian home and values compared with RETScreen results.
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Thin-film silicon solar cell is a promising technology for solar energy due to their low-cost large-scale manufacturability, but one of the major challenges is to absorb light at infrared wavelengths where the absorption length is much larger than the active layer thickness. This book overviews the state-of-the-art light trapping technology for efficiency improvement in thin-film Si solar cells. we propose an all-dielectric, textured photonic crystal (TPC) as an effective light trapping scheme, which integrates dielectric gratings and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in the backside of thin film silicon. We understand the operation principles for this design by using photonic band theories and electromagnetic wave simulations. We also developed a self-assembled method to fabricate the proposed photonic structures. Finally, we explored the fundamental performance limits for thin-lm Si solar cells.
Thin-film electronics refer to devices composed from thin-films of active semiconductors, dielectrics and metallic connects that are deposited over a supporting substrate, frequently silicon or glass. Thin-film electronics are widely used for applications, ranging from solar cells, batteries, transistors, light emitting diodes to sensors. Fabrication of thin-film electronics on nonconventional substrates (e.g., papers, polymers, fabrics and metal sheets) presents exciting opportunities for realizing the next-generation of electronics, such as flexible displays, transparent touchscreen panels, wearable solar cells and bio-integrated electronics. However, fabrication of thin-film electronics on unusual substrates faces a significant challenge due to the mismatch between the device fabrication conditions and the tolerable processing conditions for the nonconventional substrates in terms of maximum temperature and chemical compatibility. To overcome this challenge, the transfer printing methods are developed and introduced here.
Nowadays, thin-film solar cells potentially offer a suitable technology for solving the energy production problem with an environmentally friendly method. Besides, thin film technologies show advantages over their bulk-semiconductor counterparts due to their lighter weight, flexible shape and device fabrication schemes and low cost in large-scale industrial production. Although many books currently exist on general concepts of PV materials and devices, few are offering a comprehensive overview of the fast development in thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells. “Key Developments in CuInGaSe2 Thin Film Solar Cell” would provide an international perspective on the latest research on this topic. It presents a wide range of scientific and technological aspects on basic properties and device physics of high-efficiency CIGS solar cells from the last research frontier point of view. The book was designed for photovoltaic researchers and scientists, students and engineers, with the mission to provide knowledge of the mechanisms, materials, devices, and applications of CIGS-based technology necessary to develop cheaper and cleaner renewable energy in the coming years.
III-nitride compound semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN) and their alloys have emerged as versatile and high-performance materials for a wide range of electronic and optoelectronic device applications. Although high quality III-nitride thin films can be grown at high temperatures (>1000 °C) with significant rates, deposition of these films on temperature-sensitive device layers and substrates necessitates the adaptation of low-temperature methods such as atomic layer deposition (ALD). When compared to other low-temperature thin film deposition techniques, ALD stands out with its self-limiting growth mechanism, which enables the deposition of highly uniform and conformal thin films with sub-angstrom thickness control. These unique characteristics make ALD a powerful method especially for depositing films on nanostructured templates, as well as preparing alloy thin films with well-defined compositions. This monograph reports on the development of low-temperature (?200 °C) plasma-assisted ALD processes for III-nitrides, and presents detailed characterization results for the deposited thin films and fabricated nanostructures.
Electricity power is normally generated by burning fossil fuels, having detrimental impacts on the environment and will be depleted. One of the most appropriate ways to solve the foreseeable world’s energy crisis is to utilize the power of the sun. Solar cells, using photovoltaic effect, are of wide interest as they can convert solar energy to electricity. Chalcopyrite based thin-film solar cell is considered as the low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells. One of the most important chalcopyrite compounds for photovoltaic application is Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Fabricating the solar cells on flexible substrates is intriguing, as it can be applied to the roll-to-roll process with the ability to reduce production cost of the solar cells. Consequently, the purpose of the book is to provide the overview for accomplishing the good physical properties and suitable double [Ga]/([Ga]+[In])-grading profiles of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers on flexible stainless steel substrates for the thin-film solar cells with high conversion efficiency (>15%).