This book includes two parts. The first part is more theoretical and general, and it covers fundamental principles: geospatial climate data measurement; spatial analysis, mapping and climate; geographical information, remote sensing and climatology; and geographical information for initialisation of forecasting and climate models. The second part describes geographical information used in various climate applications of importance today, related to risk: urban climate; air pollution; hydrological problems linked to climatology; forest fires.
The Earth’s ecosystems are in the midst of an unprecedented period of change as a result of human action. Many habitats have been completely destroyed or divided into tiny fragments, others have been transformed through the introduction of new species, or the extinction of native plants and animals, while anthropogenic climate change now threatens to completely redraw the geographic map of life on this planet. The urgent need to understand and prescribe solutions to this complicated and interlinked set of pressing conservation issues has lead to the transformation of the venerable academic discipline of biogeography – the study of the geographic distribution of animals and plants. The newly emerged sub-discipline of conservation biogeography uses the conceptual tools and methods of biogeography to address real world conservation problems and to provide predictions about the fate of key species and ecosystems over the next century. This book provides the first comprehensive review of the field in a series of closely interlinked chapters addressing the central issues within this exciting and important subject. View www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography yo access the figures from the book.
Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology provides an accessible overview of this notoriously difficult subject. Clearly structured throughout, the authors develop sufficient theoretical foundation to understand the basis for applying various analytical methods to a time series and show clearly how to interpret the results. Taking a unique approach to the subject, the authors use a combination of theory and application to real data sets to enhance student understanding throughout the book. This book is written for those students that have a data set in the form of a time series and are confronted with the problem of how to analyse this data. Each chapter covers the various methods that can be used to carry out this analysis with coverage of the necessary theory and its application. In the theoretical section topics covered include; the mathematical origin of spectrum windows, leakage of variance and understanding spectrum windows. The applications section includes real data sets for students to analyse. Scalar variables are used for ease of understanding for example air temperatures, wind speed and precipitation. Students are encouraged to write their own computer programmes and data sets are provided to enable them to recognize quickly whether their programme is working correctly- one data set is provided with artificial data and the other with real data where the students are required to physically interpret the results of their periodgram analysis. Based on the acclaimed and long standing course at the University of Oklahoma and part of the RMetS Advancing Weather and Climate Science Series, this book is distinct in its approach to the subject matter in that it is written specifically for readers in meteorology and climatology and uses a mix of theory and application to real data sets.
This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the major topics within undergraduate study programmes in geosciences, environmental science, physical geography, natural hazards and ecology. This text introduces students to the Earth's four key interdependent systems: the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, focussing on their key components, interactions between them and environmental change. Topics covered include: An earth systems model; components systems and processes: atmospheric systems; oceanography, endogenic geological systems and exogenic geological systems, biogeography and, aspects of the Earth's Record. The impact of climate and environmental change is discussed in a final chapter which draws together Earth's systems and their evolution and looks ahead to future earth changes and environments and various time periods in the geological record. Throughout the book geological case studies are used in addition to the modern processes.
This book includes maps and descriptions of distribution and ecology of 376 species (336 maps) of most rare and threatened bryophytes on the territory of Eastern Europe. Mapping was made on 400 squares around 100 × 100 km on base geographical map system – Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) with help of original computer programs. Distribution of еhe species on the territory of 6 biogeography regions and 12 subregions are showed. This atlas may be useful for preparing of new edition of European Red Book of Bryophytes, another bryological investigations and nature protection activity.
Speleothems (mineral deposits that formed in caves) are currently giving us some of the most exciting insights into environments and climates during the Pleistocene ice ages and the subsequent Holocene rise of civilizations. The book applies system science to Quaternary environments in a new and rigorous way and gives holistic explanations the relations between the properties of speleothems and the climatic and cave setting in which they are found. It is designed as the ideal companion to someone embarking on speleothem research and, since the underlying science is very broad, it will also be invaluable to a wide variety of others. Students and professional scientists interested in carbonate rocks, karst hydrogeology, climatology, aqueous geochemistry, carbonate geochemistry and the calibration of climatic proxies will find up-to-date reviews of these topics here. The book will also be valuable to Quaternary scientists who, up to now, have lacked a thorough overview of these important archives. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/fairchild/speleothem.
The long-awaited revision of the industry standard on phylogenetics Since the publication of the first edition of this landmark volume more than twenty-five years ago, phylogenetic systematics has taken its place as the dominant paradigm of systematic biology. It has profoundly influenced the way scientists study evolution, and has seen many theoretical and technical advances as the field has continued to grow. It goes almost without saying that the next twenty-five years of phylogenetic research will prove as fascinating as the first, with many exciting developments yet to come. This new edition of Phylogenetics captures the very essence of this rapidly evolving discipline. Written for the practicing systematist and phylogeneticist, it addresses both the philosophical and technical issues of the field, as well as surveys general practices in taxonomy. Major sections of the book deal with the nature of species and higher taxa, homology and characters, trees and tree graphs, and biogeography—the purpose being to develop biologically relevant species, character, tree, and biogeographic concepts that can be applied fruitfully to phylogenetics. The book then turns its focus to phylogenetic trees, including an in-depth guide to tree-building algorithms. Additional coverage includes: Parsimony and parsimony analysis Parametric phylogenetics including maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches Phylogenetic classification Critiques of evolutionary taxonomy, phenetics, and transformed cladistics Specimen selection, field collecting, and curating Systematic publication and the rules of nomenclature Providing a thorough synthesis of the field, this important update to Phylogenetics is essential for students and researchers in the areas of evolutionary biology, molecular evolution, genetics and evolutionary genetics, paleontology, physical anthropology, and zoology.
A highly accessible alternative approach to basic statistics Praise for the First Edition: «Certainly one of the most impressive little paperback 200-page introductory statistics books that I will ever see . . . it would make a good nightstand book for every statistician.»—Technometrics Written in a highly accessible style, Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and R, Second Edition guides students in the understanding of descriptive statistics, estimation, hypothesis testing, and model building. The book emphasizes the discovery method, enabling readers to ascertain solutions on their own rather than simply copy answers or apply a formula by rote. The Second Edition utilizes the R programming language to simplify tedious computations, illustrate new concepts, and assist readers in completing exercises. The text facilitates quick learning through the use of: More than 250 exercises—with selected «hints»—scattered throughout to stimulate readers' thinking and to actively engage them in applying their newfound skills An increased focus on why a method is introduced Multiple explanations of basic concepts Real-life applications in a variety of disciplines Dozens of thought-provoking, problem-solving questions in the final chapter to assist readers in applying statistics to real-life applications Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and R, Second Edition is an excellent resource for students and practitioners in the fields of agriculture, astrophysics, bacteriology, biology, botany, business, climatology, clinical trials, economics, education, epidemiology, genetics, geology, growth processes, hospital administration, law, manufacturing, marketing, medicine, mycology, physics, political science, psychology, social welfare, sports, and toxicology who want to master and learn to apply statistical methods.