The collection, transportation and subsequent processing of waste materials is a vast field of study which incorporates technical, social, legal, economic, environmental and regulatory issues. Common waste management practices include landfilling, biological treatment, incineration, and recycling – all boasting advantages and disadvantages. Waste management has changed significantly over the past ten years, with an increased focus on integrated waste management and life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the aim of reducing the reliance on landfill with its obvious environmental concerns in favour of greener solutions. With contributions from more than seventy internationally known experts presented in two volumes and backed by the International Waste Working Group and the International Solid Waste Association, detailed chapters cover: Waste Generation and Characterization Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Management Systems Waste Minimization Material Recycling Waste Collection Mechanical Treatment and Separation Thermal Treatment Biological Treatment Landfilling Special and Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Technology & Management is a balanced and detailed account of all aspects of municipal solid waste management, treatment and disposal, covering both engineering and management aspects with an overarching emphasis on the life-cycle approach.
Since the end of the 20th century it has been increasingly realised that the use, or production, of many energetic materials leads to the release of substances which are harmful to both humans and the environment. To address this, the principles of green chemistry can be applied to the design of new products and their manufacturing processes, to create green energetic materials that are virtually free of environmental hazards and toxicity issues during manufacturing, storage, use and disposal. Active research is underway to develop new ingredients and formulations, green synthetic methods and non-polluting manufacturing processes. Green Energetic Materials provides a detailed account of the most recent research and developments in the field, including green pyrotechnics, explosives and propellants. From theoretical modelling and design of new materials, to the development of sustainable manufacturing processes, this book addresses materials already on the production line, as well as considering future developments in this evolving field. Topics covered include: Theoretical design of green energetic materials Development of green pyrotechnics Green primary and secondary explosives Oxidisers and binder materials for green propellants Environmentally sustainable manufacturing technologies for energetic materials Electrochemical methods for synthesis of energetic materials and waste remediation Green Energetic Materials is a valuable resource for academic, industrial and governmental researchers working on the development of energetic materials, for both military and civilian applications.
Clearly lays out the issues related to plastics' effects on the environment, while also serving as a practical, non-academic guide for making sustainability decisions about plastics recycling and the newest bio-based plastics Company managers, product developers, policy makers, environmental researchers, and plastics industry engineers are under increasing pressure to find ways of minimizing the environmental footprint of plastic products. This accessible book is designed to help readers understand the life-cycle impacts of various plastics, clarifying the technical research and practical arguments to show when bio-based and recycled plastics might be useful options for reducing the overall energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste associated with traditional plastics. Plastics and Sustainability compares traditional fossil fuel-based plastics with bio-based plastics in terms of properties, environmental impacts, and costs – indicating what the most effective approaches could be for using recycled, biodegradable, or various bio-based materials. The book makes objective comparisons between bioplastics and all commonly used plastics, focusing on how they affect production economics, product requirements, and retailer and consumer needs. It incorporates research concerning life-cycle assessment, production techniques, and commercial applications, and presents «green» guidelines about product design, recycling, processing efficiency, and material selection. The book also reports on recent industry developments and commercial trends in an effort to synthesize conclusions that are necessary for finding the right balance between bio-based and fossil-fuel based plastic products. Check out the author's blog at http://www.plastech.biz/blog.
Supports the use and development of strong, fracture-resistant, and mechanically reliable ceramic materials The Fracture of Brittle Materials thoroughly sets forth the key scientific and engineering concepts underlying the selection of test procedures for fracture toughness, strength determination, and reliability predictions. With this book as their guide, readers can confidently test and analyze a broad range of brittle materials in order to make the best use of existing materials as well as to support the development of new materials. The authors explain the importance of microstructure in these determinations and describe the use of quantitative fractography in failure analysis. The Fracture of Brittle Materials is relevant to a broad range of ceramic materials (i.e., any inorganic non-metal), including semiconductors, cements and concrete, oxides, carbides, and nitrides. The book covers such topics as: Basic principles of fracture mechanics underlying brittle material tests and analysis procedures Theory and mechanisms of environmentally enhanced crack growth Fracture mechanics tests to determine a material's resistance to fast fracture Test and analysis methods to assess the strength of ceramics Methods to analyze the fracture process based on quantitative measurements of the fracture surface Effect of a material's microstructure Methods for predicting the lifetime of brittle components under stress Throughout the book, figures and illustrations help readers understand key concepts and methods. Replete with real-world examples, this text enables engineers and materials and ceramics scientists to select and implement the optimal testing methods for their particular research needs and then accurately analyze the results.
Many books recommend teaching and learning strategies based on current learning research and theory. However, few books offer illustrative examples of how to take these strategies and put them into action in the real world. The Online Learning Idea Book is filled with concrete examples of people who make learning more inspiring and engaging every day, in all kinds of settings, all over the world. In this second volume of The Online Learning Idea Book you will find brand new and valuable ideas that you can adopt or adapt in your own instructional materials, to make them more dynamic and more worthwhile for learners and learning. These ideas will let you peek over the shoulders of some of the world's most creative instructors, instructional designers and developers, trainers, media developers, and others in order to help spark creative ideas of your own. This hands-on resource will help you build online instructional materials or improve existing materials including online courses, modules, activities, or supplementary materials for classroom-based courses. This book provides great tips, techniques, and tricks in the following areas: The Design and Development Process, Supporting Learning, Synchronous and Interpersonal Activities, Asynchronous and Self-Paced Activities, and NS Better Media. Within these pages you will discover creative ways to give your online and blended instruction a boost by adopting and adapting great ideas from others.
Morphing Aerospace Vehicles and Structures provides a highly timely presentation of the state-of-the-art, future directions and technical requirements of morphing aircraft. Divided into three sections it addresses morphing aircraft, bio-inspiration, and smart structures with specific focus on the flight control, aerodynamics, bio-mechanics, materials, and structures of these vehicles as well as power requirements and the use of advanced piezo materials and smart actuators. The tutorial approach adopted by the contributors, including underlying concepts and mathematical formulations, unifies the methodologies and tools required to provide practicing engineers and applied researchers with the insight to synthesize morphing air vehicles and morphing structures, as well as offering direction for future research.
This book provides an inventory of organic materials and products, the major components of all civil engineering projects, in terms of their scientific and technical background, including the regulations that cover their use and their predicted useful life. Such materials include: bitumen on the roads; geotextiles for retaining walls; membranes for bridges; tunnel and reservoir waterproofing; paint binders to protect metallic and concrete structures or to realize road markings; injection resins; gluing products; concrete admixtures; and composite materials. The presentation is based on a physicochemical approach, which is essential if these products are to be considered as part of sustainable development: as such, those studying or working in these fields will find this an invaluable source of information.
A functional discussion of the crop selection process for biomass energy The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing provides a detailed examination and analysis for a number of energy crops and their use as a source for generating electricity and for the production of bio-fuels. Renowned renewable energy expert and consultant Dr. Najib Altawell begins with the fundamentals of bio-fuels and co-firing and moves on to the main feature, which is the methodology that assists energy scientists and engineers to arrive at the most suitable biomass materials tailored to each company’s business and economic environments and objectives. This methodology provides a framework whereby power-generating companies can insert their own values for each factor, whether business factor (BF) or scientific & technical factors (S&T) or both simultaneously. The methodology provides a list of factors related to the biomass energy business. The average values have been obtained from the survey method and laboratory tests. These values are the standard values power companies can use if they need or wish to use them. The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing has been designed and compiled for the widest possible range of readers, researchers, businesspeople, and economists who are connected to the renewable energy field in general, and biomass energy in particular. Because of its focus on practical data and applications, the book is also accessible for general readers who may or may not have a technical or scientific background.
A timely text on the recent developments in data storage, from a materials perspective Ever-increasing amounts of data storage on hard disk have been made possible largely due to the immense technological advances in the field of data storage materials. Developments in Data Storage: Materials Perspective covers the recent progress and developments in recording technologies, including the emerging non-volatile memory, which could potentially become storage technologies of the future. Featuring contributions from experts around the globe, this book provides engineers and graduate students in materials science and electrical engineering a solid foundation for grasping the subject. The book begins with the basics of magnetism and recording technology, setting the stage for the following chapters on existing methods and related research topics. These chapters focus on perpendicular recording media to underscore the current trend of hard disk media; read sensors, with descriptions of their fundamental principles and challenges; and write head, which addresses the advanced concepts for writing data in magnetic recording. Two chapters are devoted to the highly challenging area in hard disk drives of tribology, which deals with reliability, corrosion, and wear-resistance of the head and media. Next, the book provides an overview of the emerging technologies, such as heat-assisted magnetic recording and bit-patterned media recording. Non-volatile memory has emerged as a promising alternative storage option for certain device applications; two chapters are dedicated to non-volatile memory technologies such as the phase-change and the magnetic random access memories. With a strong focus on the fundamentals along with an overview of research topics, Developments in Data Storage is an ideal reference for graduate students or beginners in the field of magnetic recording. It also serves as an invaluable reference for future storage technologies including non-volatile memories.
This video and full-color book combo has quite an effect for learning After Effects CS5! Adobe After Effects is a leading motion graphics and visual effects program that allows you to create and deliver compelling motion graphics and visual effects. This full-color book-and-video training package gets you quickly up to speed using the capabilities of the newest release of After Effects and deciphers even the most complex After Effects tasks. Sixteen self-paced lessons explain how to edit and apply effects for stellar visual and special effects. The supplementary video lessons included with the book are each approximately five minutes long and demonstrate the concepts and features covered in the lesson. Escorts you through the basics of editing and applying motion graphics and visual effects with Adobe After Effects CS5 Deciphers even the most advanced After Effects tasks and makes them less intimidating Features full-color book and video tutorials with step-by-step training that complement the topics covered in each lesson of the book Encourages you to absorb each lesson at your own pace Jam-packed with information, this book with videos and lesson files is just like having your own personal instructor guiding you through each unique lesson. Note: DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file. These materials are available for download upon purchase.
Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids addresses the mechanics and physics of deformable porous materials whose porous space is filled by one or several fluid mixtures interacting with the solid matrix. Coussy uses the language of thermodynamics to frame the discussion of this topic and bridge the gap between physicists and engineers, and organises the material in such a way that individual phases are explored, followed by coupled problems of increasing complexity. This structure allows the reader to build a solid understanding of the physical processes occurring in the fluids and then porous solids. Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids offers a critical reference on the physics of multiphase porous materials – key reading for engineers and researchers in structural and material engineering, concrete, wood and materials science, rock and soil mechanics, mining and oil prospecting, biomechanics.