The Senqu-Orange basin is the principal carrier of the mean annual runoff for the larger portion of South Africa, also encompassing Lesotho. The transformation of this river regime by inter-basin transfer from south-westerly flowing rivers to the northerly flowing Senqu-Orange system of water as a resource may have adverse impacts on freshwater quality of ecosystems. This work presents a case study of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, investigating alterations of the physical and chemical water quality caused by large infrastructure: Mohale Dam; Katse Dam and Matsoku Weir; and a delivery tunnel from ’Muela Dam to the Ash River. The aim of the study was to determine significant differences, if any, of selected water quality variables in water released or transported from these infrastructure. In this book, the results are evaluated using time series graphs and various statistical methods against the overall question: Have the large infrastructure altered the physical and chemical water quality of the Senqu River system? The findings of this study should assist with the environmental management of the civil engineering projects implemented in or nearby freshwater rivers.
The book is aimed at investigating the effects of industrial effluents on the water quality of River Challawa. Chemical analyses of samples of the river water collected at predetermined sampling points along a 10.644 km stretch were undertaken and the observations were subjected to ANOVA and regression analyses. The results obtained indicated that the DO values ranged from 2.4 mg/l to 1.9 mg/l, while the BOD5 ranged from 443 mg/l to 1654 mg/l; the COD ranged from 1296 mg/l to 4565 mg/l. The self-purification factor (f) for the River Challawa varies between 0.40 per day and 0.56 per day which puts the river in the sluggish stream category and as a heavily polluted stream.
Currently 35 per cent of the total water storage available in South African dams has deteriorated in water quality due to excessive nutrient loading. Eutrophication poses a significant threat to freshwater resources in South Africa. Although there are policies in place to deal with this threat, the problem of eutrophication still persists. The main goal of this study was to investigate the existence of tradeoffs between the different economic costs associated with eutrophication in the Vaal River System. This was done with the aim of understanding the water quality management policy implications that follow as a result of the existence of tradeoffs between the different economic costs associated with eutrophication in the Vaal River System. This study contributed to the understanding of the current and historic impact of eutrophication on the Vaal River System.
Water and vegetation are vital for sustaining life. However, they are becoming more stressed following population growth and associated water demands. As a result, most continent discharges are classified as “moderate” to “highly threatened” by human activities, partly through water abstraction. Bwathonaro river in Meru, Imenti North District of Eastern Kenya is not exception. The river is experiencing over abstraction driven by a number of forces, including increased irrigation farming. Consequently, downstream flows have now reduced to zero during dry season, thus causing great effects to the riparian vegetation. The severity of the effects has necessitated the adoption of mitigation measures. This book describes measures taken to mitigate the effects of water abstraction on riparian vegetation of Bwathonaro river. With increase in management efforts, the results showed progressive amplification on timing and duration of river flow peaking and retrogressive behavior of riparian vegetation. The results are useful for planning and decision making on viable measures which can reduce the effects of water abstraction on the riparian vegetation of rivers with similar characteristics.
Just as we humans depend on our atmosphere to respire so does all aquatic life depend on their hydrosphere (water). Humans will greatly be affected if the atmosphere is polluted with noxious gases so also all aquatic life if their environment (which is water) is polluted with effluents. Therefore as we humans are dependent on the quality of air we breathe so also do all aquatic life depend on the water quality of the water they exist in. River Ogun is a free to all perennial river that is at risk of ecological collapse. This book is an invaluable guide and reference for those into Assessment of surface water quality, Environmental Monitoring, Management and Protection, Aquatic studies, Plankton studies and studies on the Physico-chemical properties of water.
In recent times due to rapidly increasing demands, shortage in irrigation supplies and power potential cause unrecoverable loss in industrial, social and agricultural developments. Water has always been controlled and regulated by different means to serve a wide variety of uses. The major source of surface water is generally through river flows. However, these river flows are characterized by a great variation, both annually and seasonally. About 80% of the river flows occur during summer months and a sizeable part of these flows is wasted in areas where there is non-availability of storage capacity. Therefore, development plans in water and hydropower sector recommend programmes for the creation of surface storage by building dams so that surplus river flows could be conserved for utilization during periods of low river flows and hydraulic head is utilized for hydropower generation. This book focuses on evaluating if there is surplus water available on Indus River, where already multiple dams and barrages are present, which may be used to create additional storages for irrigation supplies and hydropower generation.
This book highlights the water quality of the Delhi stretch of River Yamuna. The sources of pollution, the subsequent quality degradation, the management of river water and steps towards better solution has been focused. The various usages of river water depending on its quality as per various standards is being discussed here.The book contain two parts. The first part deals with the quality and management of the Delhi stretch of River Yamuna and the expermiental procedures adopted to examine the water quality are dealt with in the second part in annexure. The simple and lucid language adopted by authors will make this book easy to understand.
KBS-RWQ show how best to classify rivers and embark on necessary strategic decisions. Load duration curve has been identified as one of the assessment tool that offers a practical approach to watershed management. The assessment of water quality was based on pollutant loading model establishing the load capacity of the river to determine specific limit for the river in receiving pollutant. The case study demonstrates the system capability in assessment of water quality using LC, important assessment in analyzing individual parameter to the receiving capacity of the river based on the beneficial uses of the water quality. This book will provides new software in knowledge- based expert system in river water quality. The practitioners should gain the benefit of formulating appropriate strategies and policy with the aid of KBS-RWQ software developed. KBS-RWQ is very useful tool to professional in water and water related fields such as scientist, managers/decision maker, water operators, reservoir engineer, hydrologist, community-base associations, IT/programmer or anyone who may need tools for assessing and evaluating water quality.
In this work, starting from why dams are required, the various impacts that are caused due to series of dams in the same river and how these impacts affect the downstream and the importance of addressing these cumulative impacts have been discussed. The study includes how application of models can simulate some water quality scenarios and how far predicted data by these can be used for mitigation measures. Keywords: Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Subansiri River, Water quality, Sedimentation, Impacts of hydropower projects, Social impact, environmental impact.
This book presents before the readers the deterioration in the water quality parameters of River Yamuna flowing in the Gangetic plain of the mainland India. Actually the Gangetic plain is made by the flowing rivers in the area as Yamuna and Ganga brought the plain and made the soil of plain fertile & Brahmaputra from the side of Assam i.e. eastern Himalayas supports the Gangetic River System of the plain before making the largest delta of the world i.e. the Bengal Delta. Not only the water quality of Yamuna River is deteriorated, after Allahabad(Prayag) the main River Ganga also gets deteriorated in its water quality and this disturbs the fertility of the Gangetic plain.
South Africa is a country which is experiencing freshwater challenges in term of water quality management (DWAF 2005, Ninham Shand & Arcus Gibb, 2001). The challenge in managing this natural resource is often due to an increaase in demand for water by a diversity of land use within the river catchment, which have impacts on water quality (Feng, 2005; Ma, 2005; Rui Li, 2005). The Bottellary River catchment in Cape Town and the Western Cape Province of South Africa is a true example of the impacts that land use types pose on the water quality in this area.
Benthic invertebrates are major elements to the functioning of freshwater ecosystems, representing a link between detritus and grazing food chains. These organisms have long been used to evaluate the upstream and downstream alterations induced by reservoir construction. While previous monitoring assessments have largely been focused on using physical and chemical indicators, the potential of biological indicators in biomonitoring has been recognized. Hence, it is of great importance to evaluate the impact of river impoundments particularly on water bodies using benthic macro invertebrates as indicators. This study examined downstream effects of impoundments using macro invertebrate monitoring techniques. Therefore, this manuscript provides you basic information about dam-related benthic macro invertebrate communities and enables you evaluate potential effects of dams on benthic resources.
Rivers are the most important freshwater resource playing an important role in human development. In northern India, the 900-km-long Gomati River (the Ganga River tributary) acts as a lifeline for nearly 50 million people heavily dependent on it for their localized sources of food and water supply in the Ganga Plain. The assessment of chemical water quality of the Gomati River System mainly based on dissolved concentrations of major (Ca, Mg, P, K, Si and Na) and trace (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sr and Zn) elements is done in this study. Main emphasis is given on the interpretation of resulting data enveloping with geogenic variations and anthropogenic influences. Based on World Health Organisation permissible limits and Swedish bottled water data, the present study concludes that the Gomati River water is chemically of good quality, except for Hg. Discussions provide an environmental understanding of alluvial rivers and also give equally important practical advice on management of the Ganga River. This book has been an invaluable case study for students of earth sciences, environmental sciences and water resource management.
In this study sampling stations were selected along the stretch from Digha to Gai ghat on river Ganga. The Water Quality parameters for each sample collected was determined and the Water Quality Index for Drinking was computed by unweighted harmonic mean square formula, as a method to aggregate sub index results. The Water Quality Indices developed as a part of this research, could form a basis to provide a picture of water quality to facilitate decision making by the concerned authorities. - AUTHOR
Impact of industrial effluents on abiotic parameters and biodiversity of Seven sampling station have been selected along the 200 km. Stretch of this river. The water characteristics like physico-chemical parameters and impact on biodiversity of Bagad river have been analyzed and presented in this book. The impact of water pollution on biodiversity of Bagad river, factor influencing aquatic biodiversity of fluvial ecosystem, management and conservation of aquatic biodiversity of Bagad river and few suggestive measure have been recommended to improve the water status of Bagad river.
Water quality of many rivers in the developing countries is under serious threat of degradation and Pakistan is no exception to this. The river water may be polluted by the effluents stemming from industrial, municipal, agricultural or mining activities. The most affected rivers are those flowing through the urbanized areas and subjected to anthropogenic activities. The River Chenab traverses near the industrial cities and municipalities in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The river is largely used for constant disposal of untreated effluents in unsustainable manner. This book provides spatial and temporal trends of the river water quality based on the results of a comprehensive monitoring program. Hydrological low flow analysis is performed using long term flow time-series. The water quality indexing technique is applied for objective presentation of the data on water quality. Spatial profiles of water quality are developed with MIKE 11 model. Various scenarios are tested with the numerical model to develop strategies for water quality management. The analysis may be helpful to professionals, engineers and policy makers in environment and water resources fields.