Poverty, malnutrition, low agricultural productivity, severe land degradation, shortage of water and fuel wood are common problems in the highlands of Ethiopia. A complex set of natural, political, and socio- economic factors have been responsible for the degradation of land resources. This study was conducted to characterize the nature of land use practices, nature and extent of land degradation in the highlands, assess the causes of land use change and land degradation, identify knowledge gaps and some options about the possible pathways of overcoming the problems and improve agricultural productivity. This study shows that the perspectives of local communities and households about the dynamics of land use, management and the degradation process and possible solutions are very useful and practical contribution to the research, extension and policy making community as well as the generality of citizens in the region.
Northern Ethiopia and Tigray region in particular is one of the most degraded areas in the world. Several intervention measures to rehabilitate the degraded environment have been implemented since the 1980s. This book provides political ecology readers with a glimpse of the situation in the Northern highlands of Ethiopia. Environmental degradation and its causes, solutions designed to reduce degradation and the effectiveness of the solutions/measures are explored from the perspective of different actors and mainly the local farmers. It applied the political ecology approach with an extended ethnographic fieldwork in the area.
Economic development in Ethiopia is hampered by many factors among which land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion is the major one, and it is threatening the overall sustainability of agricultural production of the country. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion in the highlands of Ethiopia has reached the point where it will became increasingly difficult even to maintain the present level of production of basic food which is already insufficient in many regions of the country. The topography of the land together with the misuse/ mismanagement of natural resource including the fauna and flora in third world country like Ethiopia create the environment harsh to live from time to time. This entail to have appropriate land use policy, program, strategy measure that considers the socio-economic, biotic and topography of the area as well as farmers own preferences. Moreover awareness creation, training and education at both levels should be timely agenda.
In response to the extensive degradation of land and its negative impact on food security, focusing on the highlands where the trouble is more intimidating, a number of potential land management technologies have been introduced throughout Ethiopia since the 1970s. The basic paradigm and approach to land and water conservation has also evolved over time. Anchored in this, in recent years more holistic and land-scape wide approaches that go beyond resource conservation towards improved land husbandry and water management for bene?cial conservation have also been promoted using a national guideline known as Community Based Participatory Watershed Development (CBPWD). However, , in promoting a major change in preceding approaches, evaluating the consequences of past interventions on the livelihood of the intended users, and lessons and successes learnt from failures have to be considered as instrumental. This paper, therefore, attempts to review and assess major land management practices, and their outcomes in West Hararhge zone of Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia.
Land degradation is a major problem undermining land productivity in the Ethiopian highlands. After a thorough review of the resource base, economic structure and production system as well as land degradation situation in Ethiopia and in the Amhara region; this book dwells with three empirical investigations. The first two empirical studies explore the factors affecting households'' adoption decision to invest in land conservation and their decision on how much (intensity) to invest. While the first study focuses on plot-level decision to investment, the second study deals with decision at the household-level. Using the multinomial logistic model and 4,795 household-plot level observations, the third study examines the factors leading to differences in the households''preferences among the various forms of land conservation investments. In the first two studies, a double- hurdle (DH) model is used to analyze the panel data collected through a survey from 6408 plots and 1251 households in the Amhara region. The three empirical studies have generated results with significant ramifications to policy.
Land degradation in the form of water erosion and soil fertility depletion is a widespread agricultural problem in Ethiopia and has far-reaching economic, social and environmental implications due to its on-site and off-site damages. Farmers’ investments to address the problem remain limited. The rational thinking associating higher land security and higher incentives to invest has been called into question in Ethiopian agriculture since 1974. Land has been the property of the Government and subjected to frequent redistribution since 1974. This book describes the different land tenure systems in Ethiopia since the 1960s. It investigated the impact of land tenure security on soil and water conservation in Ethiopia. The demonstrated the crucial importance of land tenure security for sustainable soil and water management in Ethiopia. This book is expected to serve the as a reference for development practitioners, researchers and policy makers.
Land degradation, includes degradation of vegetation cover, soil degradation and nutrients depletion are major ecological problems in Ethiopia. As a response of the ever expanding land degradation, rehabilitation of degraded land through the MoARD with non-state actors like WFP have been launched in different parts of Ethiopia including the study area for the last two decades. This book, has attempted to assess the achievements and challenges of MERET project on some selected physical and human aspects of variables. With the aid of project significant changes have been registered in the physical and socio-economic aspects. There are also problems weakening the effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the ongoing watershed developments. Therefore, this work is significant to apply integrated community based watershed management and those who are involved in this sectors like researchers, individuals and institutions.
The book presents issues of indigenous rangeland and water resources management practices in Yabello District, Borena Zone of Oromiya National Regional State, Southern Ethiopia. Its main findings state that the indigenous natural resources management practices have been replaced by other introduced and adopted natural resources management systems which have resulted in severe environmental degradation episodes over time in the area.
Land degradation: manifested in different forms soil erosion; rills and gully formation, fertility decline, moisture stress and organic matter depletion is the main cause of deterioration for soil productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. One of the direct causes of land degradation is inadequate investments in soil conservation. Thus it required urgent SWC intervention measures. If conservation is to have lasting effect, has to be related to the causes and processes of degradation. This work examined the impact of SWC practices on the improvement of soil properties: the physical and chemical properties of the soil; rill and gully erosion: the magnitude and rate of rill and gully erosion; and crop productivity(yield) on cultivated fields in two land units, conservation treated and untreated. It valued farmers’ perception in relation to soil erosion problem: land resource degradation and management problems; experience in SWC and attitude to the physical SWC measures, major SWC activities to control soil erosion and soil fertility decline. The work should help farmers, agroforestry; universities; professionals in agriculture and environment; and policy makers.
Ethiopia provides a well-known example of a severely degraded African environment with consequent implications for food insecurity and famine. Physical land degradation after road building has been observed in Central Ethiopian highlands through gully erosion. In this research work by using a number of methods such as Field observation, gully measurement, GIS technique ,the 1997and 2006 topomap and socio-economic questionnaires, the impacts of the road on land degradation has been studied. It investigates how highway construction in the Ethiopian Highlands affects the gully erosion risk by quantifying the catchement area before and after road construction, the number of gullies created, and its characteristics in two selected cases: Addis Ababa-Fiche and Addis Ababa-Ambo. Accordingly; since the building of the road, 17 new gullies were created immediately downslope of the studied road segmensts and 8 other gullies at a radical change in its dimensions. The average catchement area is now 58.28 hectares and 74.52 on the road segments of Fiche and Ambo respectively, which is significantly different (p
Poverty is multi-faceted issue and deep-rooted in Ethiopia. The country is among the world''s poorest nations in terms of human development index. The incidence of poverty in urban center of Ethiopia has been growing fast over the last few years as compared to the rural area. The main emphasis of this study is to assess the level and status of urban poverty and survival strategies of poor households in Asella town of Arsi zone in Oromiya regional state, Ethiopia.
Agricultural lands in many developing countries are increasingly declining primarily because of land degradation, which is a major cause of poverty in the rural areas. Of all the problems, soil erosion by water is the most threatening and widespread ecological process that adversely affect rural population by reducing productivity and resource degradation. This is more serous in some agrarian countries like Ethiopia specifically the high lands. Soil erosion is not only the burning issue of today but also a menace to the future. To curve this tragedy, numbers of soil and water management activities have been extensively carried out in the Ethiopian highlands. However, such tremendous efforts were not able to attain the objectives anticipated. Hence, this book is devoted to assess the numbers of interrelated factors that shared their respective roles in aggravating soil erosion, and adversely affecting the effectiveness of the conservation measures practiced in the study area. And, it is believed that the book will be helpful for researchers, planners, and people working in resources conservation and related aspects in Ethiopia.
Megalithic structures of diverse size and shape occur in different parts of Ethiopia, a country dubbed as a land of megalithic culture. While stelae, dolmens and tumuli are considered as typical markers of the megalithic culture of the country, sites comprising megaliths with only local designations have also been known.Compared to the wider distribution of the sites, however, the emphasis given to the subject has been meagre. This archaeological study, carried out in Gurage highlands, covers fourteen sites located in six localities of the districts of Sodo and Mehur-Aklil. The study has resulted in the identification of a montage of megalithic structures comprising tambourines associated with a tumulus and decorated flat stelae in Sodo, and dressed undecorated stelae of varying shape in Mehur-Aklil. Decoding some of the gravures embelishing the stelae and uncovering the enigma of megalith builders in the study areas have been challenging due to the scanty nature of data pertaining the topic. The book, although largely based on the study conducted in Gurage Highlands, has also included a review of recent investigations of megaliths in Ethiopia.
Visiting the Source and Knowledge of Ethiopia Specially Oromiya Regions Borena Zone to know the culture and political aspects of the area in your mind. Conflict over ownership of land water points and other resources have been common causes of disagreement between the Borena and Geri Peoples How ever Since 1990 there has been a change in the nature of conflict from competition over the use of scarce resources to the cause of the conflict by itself.
Land degradation, due to deforestation, is one of the major causes that consequently decline agricultural production in poor countries; and also it becomes a serious threat for life welfare. In order to mitigate this devastating situation, various stakeholders have engaged in afforestation activities across the world. Ethiopia, in its extension communication strategies, does exert its effort to enhance forest development. However, the effort made by the stakeholders seems to be inefficient. Forest coverage is still declining very terrifyingly. The reason could be many, arguably, but so far many researches have shown, one of the attributions goes to the failure to communicate the local community effectively. This book, thus, tries to look at the communication strategies employed by development agents to enhance indigenous agroforestry land-use system in one of African districts, inside Ethiopia.
Forests and the ecosystem services they provide play a crucial role in sustaining livelihoods. Deforestation and land degradation, however, are reducing the ability of the land to support delivery of these vital services. Of the successful efforts made to reverse land degradation in Tigray, N. Ethiopia, exclosures, where livestock and human interferences are excluded for effective natural regeneration, are the major. They are cost effective and require low technical expertise. Nowadays, these emerging woodlands are becoming potential biomass resources requiring tools for sustainable utilization, implying knowledge of biomass stock, growth, and allocation. This book, therefore, explains the nature and challenges of land degradation in Ethiopia; exclosures as promising restoration tools; theories and practices of biomass model development; biomass functions and sustainable utilization; and socioeconomics of exclosures and the need for inclusive management. This book is believed to be especially useful to professionals in forest ecosystem studies, wildlife ecology, plant carbon stock and carbon sequestration, or anyone else who is involved in forest resource monitoring and management.