Marxism is best known as a theory of the development, endemic crises, and predictable dissolution of capitalism. In addition, Marxism is a political movement that has had some successes and failures. The first aim of this book is to examine and critique the political movements that Marx directly confronted or that derived from Marx following his death in 1883, when a variety of Marxist parties arose in opposition to one another. Contrary to Marx’s expectations, when socialist societies were brought into being in the twentieth century, they did not result directly from the contradictions of the advanced capitalist system, but from the effects of imperialism. Beginning with the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the revolutionary impetus had shifted from the developed West to the capitalist periphery. Marx had not speculated in any depth about the nature of the socialist society that would replace capitalism. This book attempts to assess the positive and negative lessons of this experience, particularly in Russia and China, in the light of contemporary issues. In the twenty-first century it is clear that none of these revolutions has succeeded in achieving an equitable and humane socialist society; rather, they have in the main reinvented capitalism.
It is evident that today Europe is experiencing social, economic and political crisis after three decades of its neo-liberal policies, particularly in France. The book tries to move a spirit of enquiry and builds up an understanding about the relevance of Marxism which has claimed by many as dead doctrine. However, problem shown by Marx in a capitalist system is still relevant that can be seen in Europe particularly in France. The people of France responded against the capitalist system time and again. The political parties never fulfilled the aspirations of common man, only few demands were met. The change was result of inefficiency of previous capitalist government. The people of France replaced the capitalist government with socialist party after 17 years. This change is also a trend toward socialism. Marx suggested that socialism could be achieved by peaceful and radical means when required. The change has taken place due to collective consciousness of common people but it success depends on socialist political parties.
Literature of Revolution explores the pivotal texts and topics in the Marxist tradition, drawing on the works of Marx, Trotsky, Luxemburg, Lenin, and Althusser. In close dialogue with common themes and arguments in revolutionary Marxist thought, Geras brings some of his persistent preoccupations to the fore: the relationship between Marxism and justice; the debates on political organization; and the role of revolutionary mass action and party pluralism; as well as an enthralling exploration into the literary power of Trotsky’s writing.
This work is an invaluable companion text to any course on Marxism. Simeon counter-balances Marx's Logic of historical explanation with that of a post-marxian scholar: Ernest Gellner. The comparative and analytical structure of this text ensures that it remains appealing to both novice and veteran students of both philosophy and history. The work leads one to assess the relevance of Marx's philosophy of history to the contemporary time.
Marxism and Deconstruction. A Critical Articulatio n
Marxism Central Planning & the Soviet Economy– Econ Ess in Honor of Alexander Erlich
The concept of ideology – traditionally one of Marxism?s most persuasive ideas – has recently been subjected to devastating criticism. Michele Barrett shows that Marx?s own writings offer a confusing array of possible approaches to ?ideology?, which the classical Marxist tradition consolidated as ?mystification that serves class interests?. Barrett locates Gramsci and Althusser as key figures in the breakdown of the classical Marxist conception – Gramsci?s work presaging the separation of class, politics and ideology found in Laclau and Mouffe, and Althusser?s failing to deliver an adequate approach to subjectivity. Foucault – replacing Marxism?s ?economics of untruth? with his own ?politics of truth? – is examined as an exemplar of post–structuralist critiques of ideology.
Theories and Narratives explores the relationship between social theory and historical writing. Its aim is to establish the contribution that theory can make to understanding the past. Pursuing this objective, Alex Callinicos critically confronts a number of leading attempts to reconceptualize the meaning of history, including Francis Fukuyama?s rehabilitation of Hegel?s philosophy of history and the postmodernist efforts of Hayden White and others to deny the existence of a past independent of our representations of it. In these cases philosophical arguments are pursued in tandem with discussions of historical interpretations of, respectively, Stalinism and the Holocaust. Leading theories of history – Marx?s and Weber?s – are then critically compared in the context of the work of recent writers such as Michael Mann, W. G. Runciman and Robert Brenner. Finally, the politics of historical theory is explored in a discussion of Marxism?s claims to be a universal theory of human progress. Swimming against the tide of contemporary fashion, Theories and Narratives seeks to rebut the claim made by many postmodernists that Marxism is inherently Eurocentric in both its conceptual structures and political practice. Marx?s project of human emancipation, it concludes, still defines our political horizons.