Explores the latest advances and applications of specialty and electronic gas analysis The semiconductor industry depends upon a broad range of instrumental techniques in order to detect and analyze impurities that may be present in specialty and electronic gases, including permanent gases, water vapor, reaction by-products, and metal species. Trace Analysis of Specialty and Electronic Gases draws together all the latest advances in analytical chemistry, providing researchers with both the theory and the operating principles of the full spectrum of instrumental techniques available for specialty and electronic gas analysis. Moreover, the book details the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, steering readers away from common pitfalls. Featuring contributions from leading analytical and industrial chemists, Trace Analysis of Specialty and Electronic Gases covers a wide range of practical industrial applications. The book begins with the historical development of gas analysis and then focuses on particular subjects or techniques such as: Metals sampling and ICP-MS analysis Improvements in FTIR spectroscopy Water vapor analysis techniques New infrared laser absorption spectroscopy approaches GC/MS, GC/AED, and GC-ICP-MS techniques Gas chromatography columns Atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry Lastly, the book examines gas mixtures and standards that are critical for instrument calibration. There are also two appendices offering information on fittings and material compatibility. With its thorough review of the literature and step-by-step guidance, Trace Analysis of Specialty and Electronic Gases enables researchers to take full advantage of the latest advances in gas analysis. Although the book's focus is the semiconductor and electronics industry, analytical chemists in other industries facing challenges with such issues as detection selectivity and sensitivity, matrix gas interference, and materials compatibility will also discover plenty of useful analytical approaches and techniques.
Trace elements occur naturally in soils and some are essential nutrients for plant growth as well as human and animal health. However, at elevated levels, all trace elements become potentially toxic. Anthropogenic input of trace elements into the natural environment therefore poses a range of ecological and health problems. As a result of their persistence and potential toxicity, trace elements continue to receive widespread scientific and legislative attention. Trace Elements in Soils reviews the latest research in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, analysis, fate and regulation of trace elements in soils, as well as remediation strategies for contaminated soil. The book is divided into four sections: • Basic principles, processes, sampling and analytical aspects: presents an overview including general soil chemistry, soil sampling, analysis, fractionation and speciation. • Long-term issues, impacts and predictive modelling: reviews major sources of metal inputs, the impact on soil ecology, trace element deficient soils and chemical speciation modelling. • Bioavailability, risk assessment and remediation: discusses bioavailability, regulatory limits and cleanup technology for contaminated soils including phytoremediation and trace element immobilization. • Characteristics and behaviour of individual elements Written as an authoritative guide for scientists working in soil science, geochemistry, environmental science and analytical chemistry, the book is also a valuable resource for professionals involved in land management, environmental planning, protection and regulation.
This book covers all aspects of environmental trace analysis from sampling through to preparation of the sample to the analytical techniques used to quantify the level of trace metals or organic compounds. The book is divided into two areas: sample preparation for inorganic analysis and sample preparation for organic analysis. This allows the reader to focus on key aspects related to the preparation of samples for their subsequent analysis. Selected case studies provide the reader with the opportunity to consider how the sample preparation approach can be optimized for their own area of expertise.
Explores the uses of TXRF in micro- and trace analysis, and in surface- and near-surface-layer analysis • Pinpoints new applications of TRXF in different fields of biology, biomonitoring, material and life sciences, medicine, toxicology, forensics, art history, and archaeometry • Updated and detailed sections on sample preparation taking into account nano- and picoliter techniques • Offers helpful tips on performing analyses, including sample preparations, and spectra recording and interpretation • Includes some 700 references for further study
The first treatment of advanced knowledge of electrical sneak circuits and its analysis method in power electronics The work on sneak circuit and its analysis methods for power converters contributes to the reliability of power electronic systems worldwide. Most books in the subject concentrate on electronic systems, but this book is perhaps the first to examine power electronic systems. It describes the sneak circuit phenomena in power converters, introduces some SCA methods for power electronic systems and proposes how to eliminate and make use of sneak circuits. The book is divided into three separate sections. Firstly, the sneak circuit paths and sneak circuit operating conditions are discussed in different kinds of power converters, including resonant switched capacitor converters, basic DC-DC converters, soft-switching converters and Z-source converters; Secondly, the sneak circuit analysis guidelines for power converters based on generalized matrix, adjacency matrix and Boolean matrix are presented respectively; Thirdly, the sneak circuit elimination techniques are introduced and verified in several power converters, with applications of sneak circuits described in conclusion. Written by a lead author with extensive academic and industrial experience, the book provides a complete introduction and reference to students and professionals alike. Contents include: Fundamental Concepts, SCA of Resonant Switched Capacitor Converters, SC of DC-DC Converters, SC Analysis Method (including Boolian Matrix), and Applications of SC in Power Converters. Highlights the advanced research works in the sneak circuit analysis, by a leading author in the field Original in its treatment of power electronics converters; most other books concentrating on electronics systems, and aimed at both introductory and advanced levels Offers guidelines for industry professionals involved in the design of power electronic systems, enabling early detection of potential problems Essential reading for Graduate students in Electrical Engineering: Engineers and Researchers in Power Electronics
Occupation Analysis in Practice is the essential book for all future and current occupational therapists. It offers a practical approach to the analysis of occupations in real world practice. The book frames occupation as the key component for analysis and builds upon previous work limited to analysis at the activity level. It examines the interests, goals, abilities and contexts of individuals, groups, institutions and communities, along with the demands of the occupation. It presents examples of occupation analysis in different practice context including working with children, health promotion, indigenous health, medico-legal practice; mental health and occupational rehabilitation. The book has four sections. Section 1 introduces theoretical perspectives of the concept of occupation analysis and how such analysis relates to particular models of Occupational Therapy practice and the generic World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Section 2 discusses analysis of particular components of occupation that support practice. These include culture, spirituality, home and community environments as well as self-care and leisure. Section 3 applies analysis of occupations to particular specialties encountered in practice. Section 4 considers the application of Occupation Analysis within professional reasoning and goal setting. FEATURES International team of contributors Examples of occupation analysis proforma Application to a wide range of practice areas. Glossary of key terms Incudes the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.
While numerous books have been written on earthquakes, earthquake resistance design, and seismic analysis and design of structures, none have been tailored for advanced students and practitioners, and those who would like to have most of the important aspects of seismic analysis in one place. With this book, readers will gain proficiencies in the following: fundamentals of seismology that all structural engineers must know; various forms of seismic inputs; different types of seismic analysis like, time and frequency domain analyses, spectral analysis of structures for random ground motion, response spectrum method of analysis; equivalent lateral load analysis as given in earthquake codes; inelastic response analysis and the concept of ductility; ground response analysis and seismic soil structure interaction; seismic reliability analysis of structures; and control of seismic response of structures. Provides comprehensive coverage, from seismology to seismic control Contains useful empirical equations often required in the seismic analysis of structures Outlines explicit steps for seismic analysis of MDOF systems with multi support excitations Works through solved problems to illustrate different concepts Makes use of MATLAB, SAP2000 and ABAQUAS in solving example problems of the book Provides numerous exercise problems to aid understanding of the subject As one of the first books to present such a comprehensive treatment of the topic, Seismic Analysis of Structures is ideal for postgraduates and researchers in Earthquake Engineering, Structural Dynamics, and Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Developed for classroom use, the book can also be used for advanced undergraduate students planning for a career or further study in the subject area. The book will also better equip structural engineering consultants and practicing engineers in the use of standard software for seismic analysis of buildings, bridges, dams, and towers. Lecture materials for instructors available at www.wiley.com/go/dattaseismic
Edited by two very well-known and respected scientists in the field, this excellent practical guide is the first to cover the fundamentals and a wide range of applications, as well as showing readers how to efficiently use this increasingly important technique. From the contents: * The Isotopic Composition of the Elements * Single-Collector ICP-MS * Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Advances in Laser Ablation – Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Correction for Instrumental Mass Discrimination in Isotope Ratio Determination with Multi-Collector ICP-MS * Reference Materials in Isotopic Analysis * Quality Control in Isotope Ratio Applications * Determination of Trace Elements and Elemental Species Using Isotope Dilution ICP-MS * Geochronological Dating * Application of Multi-Collector ICP-MS to Isotopic Analysis in Cosmochemistry * Establishing the Basis for Using Stable Isotope Ratios of Metals as Paleoredox Proxies * Isotopes as Tracers of Elements Across the Geosphere-Biosphere Interface * Archaeometric Applications * Forensics Applications * Nuclear Applications * The Use of Stable Isotope Techniques for Studying Mineral and Trace Element Metabolism in Humans * Isotopic Analysis via Multi-Collector ICP-MS in Elemental Speciation A must-have for newcomers as well as established scientists seeking an overview of isotopic analysis via ICP-MS.
Presenting cutting-edge research and development within multiscale modeling techniques and frameworks, Multiscale Analysis of Deformation and Failure of Materials systematically describes the background, principles and methods within this exciting new & interdisciplinary field. The author’s approach emphasizes the principles and methods of atomistic simulation and its transition to the nano and sub-micron scale of a continuum, which is technically important for nanotechnology and biotechnology. He also pays close attention to multiscale analysis across the micro/meso/macroscopy of a continuum, which has a broad scope of applications encompassing different disciplines and practices, and is an essential extension of mesomechanics. Of equal interest to engineers, scientists, academics and students, Multiscale Analysis of Deformation and Failure of Materials is a multidisciplinary text relevant to those working in the areas of materials science, solid and computational mechanics, bioengineering and biomaterials, and aerospace, automotive, civil, and environmental engineering. Provides a deep understanding of multiscale analysis and its implementation Shows in detail how multiscale models can be developed from practical problems and how to use the multiscale methods and software to carry out simulations Discusses two interlinked categories of multiscale analysis; analysis spanning from the atomistic to the micro-continuum scales, and analysis across the micro/meso/macro scale of continuum.
The monograph is devoted to a problem of production and sale of the concentrating and mountain equipment. The economic evaluation of production and sale is opened in the following sequence. The economic essence of the concept «insolvency» of the entity is stated. The reasons of risk of insolvency, its role in diagnostic approaches to solvency analysis of the entity, are called and analysed possibilities of a risk assessment of insolvency of the entity. By means of assessment of a condition the model of the analysis and a risk assessment of insolvency of the entity, an algorithm of its application in the analysis of machine-building enterprise is developed. Assessment of a condition of production and sale is carried out based on huge statistical material on influence of structure and structure of current assets on solvency of machinebuilding enterprise, liquidity of balance and assessment of liquidity and efficiency of cash flows for strengthening and optimization of activities. With use of integration of methods approbation of an analysis technique and a risk assessment of insolvency of machine-building enterprise is carried out and the possibilities of its optimization are considered. In an analysis result, assessment and developed offers the management concept is formulated by liquidity of machine-building enterprise and decrease in risk of insolvency, the principles of its forming and the mechanism of implementation are shown.
From formulation to implementation, an approach to the analysis of social policy through the lens of research Analyzing Social Policy prepares professionals and students to make better informed decisions related to identifying and understanding the intricacies and potential impact of social policymaking and enactment on their organization as well as their individual responsibilities, goals, and objectives. Authors Mary Katherine O'Connor and F. Ellen Netting thoroughly examine various approaches to the analysis of social policies and how these approaches provide the knowledge, multiple perspectives, and other resources to understand and grasp the nuances of social policy in all its complexity. Comprehensive and based on research, Analyzing Social Policy explores: An overview of the practice of social policy analysis The role of research in guiding policy analysis The idea of policy analyses as research Themes, assumptions, and major theories that undergird rational models of policy analysis Nonrational themes, assumptions, and major theories informing nontraditional interpretive and critical approaches to policy analysis Strategies for applying selected models and approaches when engaging in policy analysis as research Providing practitioners and students with a set of tools that can be used to enhance an understanding of what constitutes policy as well as acceptable standards for critical analysis of policy, this resource enables policy advocates—regardless of their level—to be political, strategic, and critical in their work.
An accessible and practical approach to the design and analysis of experiments in the health sciences Design and Analysis of Experiments in the Health Sciences provides a balanced presentation of design and analysis issues relating to data in the health sciences and emphasizes new research areas, the crucial topic of clinical trials, and state-of-the- art applications. Advancing the idea that design drives analysis and analysis reveals the design, the book clearly explains how to apply design and analysis principles in animal, human, and laboratory experiments while illustrating topics with applications and examples from randomized clinical trials and the modern topic of microarrays. The authors outline the following five types of designs that form the basis of most experimental structures: Completely randomized designs Randomized block designs Factorial designs Multilevel experiments Repeated measures designs A related website features a wealth of data sets that are used throughout the book, allowing readers to work hands-on with the material. In addition, an extensive bibliography outlines additional resources for further study of the presented topics. Requiring only a basic background in statistics, Design and Analysis of Experiments in the Health Sciences is an excellent book for introductory courses on experimental design and analysis at the graduate level. The book also serves as a valuable resource for researchers in medicine, dentistry, nursing, epidemiology, statistical genetics, and public health.
Analysis of Structures offers an original way of introducing engineering students to the subject of stress and deformation analysis of solid objects, and helps them become more familiar with how numerical methods such as the finite element method are used in industry. Eisley and Waas secure for the reader a thorough understanding of the basic numerical skills and insight into interpreting the results these methods can generate. Throughout the text, they include analytical development alongside the computational equivalent, providing the student with the understanding that is necessary to interpret and use the solutions that are obtained using software based on the finite element method. They then extend these methods to the analysis of solid and structural components that are used in modern aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering applications. Analysis of Structures is accompanied by a book companion website www.wiley.com/go/waas housing exercises and examples that use modern software which generates color contour plots of deformation and internal stress.It offers invaluable guidance and understanding to senior level and graduate students studying courses in stress and deformation analysis as part of aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering degrees as well as to practicing engineers who want to re-train or re-engineer their set of analysis tools for contemporary stress and deformation analysis of solids and structures. Provides a fresh, practical perspective to the teaching of structural analysis using numerical methods for obtaining answers to real engineering applications Proposes a new way of introducing students to the subject of stress and deformation analysis of solid objects that are used in a wide variety of contemporary engineering applications Casts axial, torsional and bending deformations of thin walled objects in a framework that is closely amenable to the methods by which modern stress analysis software operates.
Failure analysis is the preferred method to investigate product or process reliability and to ensure optimum performance of electrical components and systems. The physics-of-failure approach is the only internationally accepted solution for continuously improving the reliability of materials, devices and processes. The models have been developed from the physical and chemical phenomena that are responsible for degradation or failure of electronic components and materials and now replace popular distribution models for failure mechanisms such as Weibull or lognormal. Reliability engineers need practical orientation around the complex procedures involved in failure analysis. This guide acts as a tool for all advanced techniques, their benefits and vital aspects of their use in a reliability programme. Using twelve complex case studies, the authors explain why failure analysis should be used with electronic components, when implementation is appropriate and methods for its successful use. Inside you will find detailed coverage on: a synergistic approach to failure modes and mechanisms, along with reliability physics and the failure analysis of materials, emphasizing the vital importance of cooperation between a product development team involved the reasons why failure analysis is an important tool for improving yield and reliability by corrective actions the design stage, highlighting the ‘concurrent engineering' approach and DfR (Design for Reliability) failure analysis during fabrication, covering reliability monitoring, process monitors and package reliability reliability resting after fabrication, including reliability assessment at this stage and corrective actions a large variety of methods, such as electrical methods, thermal methods, optical methods, electron microscopy, mechanical methods, X-Ray methods, spectroscopic, acoustical, and laser methods new challenges in reliability testing, such as its use in microsystems and nanostructures This practical yet comprehensive reference is useful for manufacturers and engineers involved in the design, fabrication and testing of electronic components, devices, ICs and electronic systems, as well as for users of components in complex systems wanting to discover the roots of the reliability flaws for their products.
A comprehensive history of the evolution of technical analysis from ancient times to the Internet age Whether driven by mass psychology, fear or greed of investors, the forces of supply and demand, or a combination, technical analysis has flourished for thousands of years on the outskirts of the financial establishment. In The Evolution of Technical Analysis: Financial Prediction from Babylonian Tablets to Bloomberg Terminals, MIT's Andrew W. Lo details how the charting of past stock prices for the purpose of identifying trends, patterns, strength, and cycles within market data has allowed traders to make informed investment decisions based in logic, rather than on luck. The book Reveals the origins of technical analysis Compares and contrasts the Eastern practices of China and Japan to Western methods Details the contributions of pioneers such as Charles Dow, Munehisa Homma, Humphrey B. Neill, and William D. Gann The Evolution of Technical Analysis explores the fascinating history of technical analysis, tracing where technical analysts failed, how they succeeded, and what it all means for today's traders and investors.