The Fischer-Tropsch process is gaining recognition again due to the world-wide increase in energy needs and decrease in oil availability. The increasing interest in utilizing biomass as a potential renewable feedstock in energy generation is further supporting this development. The book covers the production and refining of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude to fuels and chemicals systematically and comprehensively, presenting a wealth of new knowledge and material. As such, it deals extensively with aspects of engineering, chemistry and catalysis. This handbook and ready reference adopts a fundamental approach, looking at the molecules and their transformation from feed to product. Numerous examples illustrate the possibilities and limitations of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude as feesdstock. Of great interest to everyone interested in refining – not just Fischer-Tropsch specialists. From the Contents: Fischer-Tropsch Facilities and Refineries at a Glance Production of Fischer-Tropsch Syncrude Industrial Fischer-Tropsch Facilities Synthetic Transportation Fuels Refining Technology Refinery Design
How can we use our carbon-based resources in the most responsible manner? How can we most efficiently transform natural gas, coal, or biomass into diesel, jet fuel or gasoline to drive our machines? The Big Questions today are energyrelated, and the Fischer-Tropsch process provides industrially tested solutions. This book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the Fischer-Tropsch process, from the basic science and engineering to commercial issues. It covers industrial, economic, environmental, and fundamental aspects, with a specific focus on 'green' concepts such as sustainability, process improvement, waste-reduction, and environmental care. The result is a practical reference for researchers, engineers, and financial analysts working in the energy sector, who are interested in carbon conversion, fuel processing or synthetic fuel technologies. It is also an ideal introductory book on the Fischer-Tropsch process for graduate courses in chemistry and chemical engineering.
Presents the synthesis, technology and processing details of a large range of polymers derived from renewable resources It has been a long-term desire to replace polymers from fossil fuels with the more environmentally friendly polymers generated from renewable resources. Now, with the recent advancements in synthesis technologies and the finding of new functional monomers, research in this field has shown strong potential in generating better property polymers from renewable resources. A text describing these advances in synthesis, processing, and technology of such polymers not only provides the state-of-the-art information to researchers, but also acts to stimulate research in this direction. The contents are based on a wide range of functional monomers and the contributions are written by eminent researchers. Specifically Renewable Polymers: Demonstrates the design, synthesis, properties and applications of plant oil-based polymers Presents an elaborate review of acid mediated polymerization techniques for the generation of green polymers Details the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from olive oil based wastewater Describes the use of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques Reviews the renewable polymers derived from transgenic crop plants Provides an overview of a range of biomass-based polymers Concludes with the recent efforts and approaches exploiting the natural materials in developing drug delivery systems.
This book describes advances in synthesis, processing, and technology of environmentally friendly polymers generated from renewable resources. With contents based on a wide range of functional monomers and contributions from eminent researchers, this volume demonstrates the design, synthesis, properties and applications of plant oil based polymers, presenting an elaborate review of acid mediated polymerization techniques for the generation of green polymers. Chemical engineers are provided with state-of-the-art information that acts to further progress research in this direction.
All the latest tools needed to plan and perform the synthesis of complex bioactive molecules Focusing on organic, organometallic, and bio-oriented processes, this book explores the impact and use of the latest synthetic tools for the synthesis of complex biologically active compounds. Readers will discover step by step how these synthetic tools have provided new, elegant solutions to many synthetic puzzles. Moreover, they will discover innovative methods that make it possible to control the exact connectivity of atoms within a molecule in order to set precise three-dimensional arrangements. Modern Tools for the Synthesis of Complex Bioactive Molecules features sixteen chapters, each one written by one or more leading experts in organic synthesis from around the world. It covers a broad range of topics that enable readers to take advantage of the latest methods for synthesizing complex molecules, including: Modern catalysis, emphasizing key transformations such as C-H functionalizations, cross-couplings, gold-catalyzed reactions, metathesis-based syntheses, and asymmetric organocatalysis Eco-compatible transformations, including rearrangements and domino reactions Tools for the synthesis of carbohydrates and alkaloids New techniques, including the use of fluorous tags and engineered biosynthesis The last two chapters explore target- and diversity-oriented organic synthesis as well as the use of DNA-based asymmetric catalysis, which are all promising tools for the successful synthesis of complex bioactive molecules. Modern Tools for the Synthesis of Complex Bioactive Molecules is ideal for students and researchers who need to plan and perform the synthesis of complex molecules as efficiently as possible. The book's expert advice will help these readers quickly resolve a broad range of problems that can arise in organic syntheses.
This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milestones in organocatalytic, enzymatic and metal-based mediated asymmetric synthesis, including applications for the synthesis of biologically active molecules. Written by leading international experts, this book consists of 16 chapters with 2000 References and illustrations of 560 schemes and figures.
Introducing a new, pioneering approach to integrated circuit design Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond Phase-Locked Loop introduces an innovative new way of looking at frequency that promises to open new frontiers in modern integrated circuit (IC) design. While most books on frequency synthesis deal with the phase-locked loop (PLL), this book focuses on the clock signal. It revisits the concept of frequency, solves longstanding problems in on-chip clock generation, and presents a new time-based information processing approach for future chip design. Beginning with the basics, the book explains how clock signal is used in electronic applications and outlines the shortcomings of conventional frequency synthesis techniques for dealing with clock generation problems. It introduces the breakthrough concept of Time-Average-Frequency, presents the Flying-Adder circuit architecture for the implementation of this approach, and reveals a new circuit device, the Digital-to-Frequency Converter (DFC). Lastly, it builds upon these three key components to explain the use of time rather than level to represent information in signal processing. Provocative, inspiring, and chock-full of ideas for future innovations, the book features: A new way of thinking about the fundamental concept of clock frequency A new circuit architecture for frequency synthesis: the Flying-Adder direct period synthesis A new electronic component: the Digital-to-Frequency Converter A new information processing approach: time-based vs. level-based Examples demonstrating the power of this technology to build better, cheaper, and faster systems Written with the intent of showing readers how to think outside the box, Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop is a must-have resource for IC design engineers and researchers as well as anyone who would like to be at the forefront of modern circuit design.
This book addresses the need for a comprehensive book on the design, synthesis, and characterization of synthetic carbohydrate-based polymeric materials along with their biological applications. The first two chapters cover the synthesis and self-assembly of glycopolymers and different techniques for creating these synthetic polymers. Subsequent chapters account for the preparation of block copolymers, branched glycopolymers, glycosurfaces, glycodendrimers, cationic glycopolymers, bioconjugates, glyconanoparticles and hydrogels. While these chapters comprehensively review the synthetic and characterization methods of those carbohydrate-based materials, their biological applications are discussed in detail.
Presents both the fundamental concepts and the most recent applications in solid-phase organic synthesis With its emphasis on basic concepts, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis guides readers through all the steps needed to design and perform successful solid-phase organic syntheses. The authors focus on the fundamentals of heterogeneous supports in the synthesis of organic molecules, explaining the use of a solid material to facilitate organic synthesis. This comprehensive text not only presents the fundamentals, but also reviews the most recent research findings and applications, offering readers everything needed to conduct their own state-of-the-art science experiments. Featuring chapters written by leading researchers in the field, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis is divided into two parts: Part One, Concepts and Strategies, discusses the linker groups used to attach the synthesis substrate to the solid support, colorimetric tests to identify the presence of functional groups, combinatorial synthesis, and diversity-oriented synthesis. Readers will discover how solid-phase synthesis is currently used to facilitate the discovery of new molecular functionality. The final chapter discusses how using a support can change or increase reaction selectivity. Part Two, Applications, presents examples of the solid-phase synthesis of various classes of organic molecules. Chapters explore general asymmetric synthesis on a support, strategies for heterocyclic synthesis, and synthesis of radioactive organic molecules, dyes, dendrimers, and oligosaccharides. Each chapter ends with a set of conclusions that underscore the key concepts and methods. References in each chapter enable readers to investigate any topic in greater depth. With its presentation of basic concepts as well as recent findings and applications, Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis is the ideal starting point for students and researchers in organic, medicinal, and combinatorial chemistry who want to take full advantage of current solid-phase synthesis techniques.