Malaria has become a great concern globally and has impacted negatively on the economies of developing nations. Health workers generally are unable to identify high or risk areas in the areas they operate so as to tailor interventions and do effective health monitoring. Research conducted so far by medical and climate professionals have either lacked knowledge or showed less concern for the variation of the climate conditions that accompany the transmission of malaria. The geographical distribution of any major disease forms an important basis for locating appropriate interventions for its control and a means to monitoring their effectiveness. There is a need for a risk map to draw attention to hot spots and areas where intervention measures can be tailored to improve the monitoring of the occurrences, distribution and control of malaria in different geographical areas and time periods. In this book Geographic information System (GIS) and other spatial statistical approach like Bayesian and Poison methods is utilized to correlate the factors that are associated with these spatial and temporal heterogeneity of malaria transmission at the different geographic locations.
In the past decade, the role of GIS is enormous in managing spatial and non-spatial data for making effective decision regarding risk in different tropical diseases. Lack of geo-referenced data on malaria breeding sites for assessing malaria risk in an area is one of the gaps on the health sectors. This book, therefore, provides an important pieces of information on addressing the risk assessment of tropical diseases like malaria by the help of spatial model in GIS environment. The three distinct, parameters of risk model described herein.
In Sub-Saharan Africa decades of development and malaria control have not significantly eliminated the risk of malaria infections. In 2010, 91% of the 655000 malaria deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. Why has malaria become such a difficult disease to control despite the fact that it is largely preventable and treatable, and the knowledge to do this exists? Development and Malaria Prevention in Rural Ghana provides a critical exploration of the factors that explain why increased policy attention and resource mobilization to malaria control in Sub-Saharan Africa have not led to malaria eradication or drastic reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality. Based on empirical research in Ghana, the book brings into conversation debates from development studies and public health and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of current policy responses to malaria especially in rural Ghana. The book is intended for senior undergraduate students, graduate students, and teachers interested in issues of development and health in Africa. The book will also be a valuable resource for policy makers and development and healthcare practitioners concerned with the fight against malaria.
Malaria is recognized as a leading public health problem. Prompt and effective treatment is an essential component of the strategy to control malaria. Over the years, there was a high level of resistance of P. falciparum (the major species responsible for malaria in Ghana) to mono therapies like Chloroquine (first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria) in most African countries including Ghana. There was therefore the need to change to Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as recommended by World Health Organisation. In 2005, a new anti-malaria drug policy was introduced in Ghana with Artesunate-Amodiaquine as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Three years after its inception, no assessment has been done on the challenges and successes of the treatment policy. This book provides an assessment of factors that influence treatment of malaria with ACTs, operational challenges associated with policy implementation and scientific data to make appropriate recommendations to stakeholders, Health Management Teams and Organizations involved in the fight against malaria to effect the needed changes for policy direction and eventually reducing the burden of malaria.
Background: Malaria is associated with an increase in viral load and fall in CD4-cell count. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of malaria among HIV patients in hospitals. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that reviewed HIV patients’ folders in hospitals in Ghana. Ethical approvals were obtained from three recognized Ethical Review Committees. Result: The total 933 patients were made of 272 (29.2%) males and 661 (70.8%) females. A prevalence of 4.4% (95% CI: 2.2, 6.6) confirmed cases of malaria was recorded in the study. Fever, was not significantly associated with confirmed malaria (OR=3.11, 95% CI: [0.63, 15.37], P=0.142). Conclusions: A low prevalence of confirmed malaria, 4.4% (95% CI: 2.2, 6.6), was recorded among HIV patients from Ghana. The prevalence could also be attributed to the high cases of malaria diagnosed presumptively (37.0%), (OR=4.11, 95% CI: [2.83, 5.96], P
This work was done in highly endemic zone of malaria i.e. North West Rajasthan, India, under the guidance of Dr.D.K. Kochar & DR. K.C. Nayak . In this zone every year malaria take lots of toll in form of mortality including pregnant females. This work will aware the researcher & public about the impact of plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant females, which seems like milder form of malaria. This work shows that vivax malaria may also fatal in some susceptible group of people.
The failure of malaria eradication in Ghana coupled with the prevailing environmental and economic conditions in the Ga East Municipality put majority of the inhabitants at high risk of malaria infection. This book presents the spatial prevalence of malaria and the coping strategies adopted to prevent and treat malaria in the Ga East Municipality. It was observed that the disease has consistently been the most predominant cause of morbidity and places a challenge on the health delivery system in the municipality. The book also shows that an interplay of environmental, economic and anthropogenic factors leads to differentials in vulnerability to malaria infections. Malaria also directly and indirectly affects the potential of an individual to undertake his or her daily economic activities, the ability to participate in community and religious gatherings. Malaria has the tendency of reducing household income and creates emotional and psychological distress. This book therefore identifies the weaknesses associated with the unavailability of basic services in urban fringes and how they affect health conditions. It is therefore recommended for experts who aim at solving health problems.
Education is the basic need of every child and providing educational facilities in remote areas is the major challenge before planners and administrators. Remote Sensing and GIS is important tool for mapping the educational facilities and assessing the spatial needs of such facilities. Providing timely assistance of educational facilities and reshaping children lives is a major challenge that can be solved through quick planning by acquiring base data from Remote Sensing and GIS. The study tries to investigate the spatial analysis of schooling facilities relating to elementary education in the district of West Champaran, Bihar. The two blocks Maintanr and Sikta of the said district have been studied using geospatial technique to identify served/unserved areas of educational facilities and mapping site suitability of new school.
Malaria is a persistent public health problem and is the leading cause of death among young African children, killing one child every second. The disease also seriously affects children’s future: they may suffer neurological after-effects and impaired learning ability. Malaria is hyper-endemic in Ghana. It remains a major public health problem, requiring focused interventions including prompt and effective scientific studies. Therefore, this study, applied a binary logistic regression model to analyze predictors influencing malaria in-hospital mortality using inpatient morbidity and mortality returns register from the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the northern region of Ghana. The study comprised five chapters in all. The results showed that there is a linear relationship between malaria mortality and the predictors. Again, it was found that the predictors; referral status, distance, treatment type and length of stay were relevant in predicting malaria mortality. This book, therefore, provides a scientific resource for health personnel, the health ministries, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other stakeholders in the public health sector.
The entry of Islam into Ghana and among the Akan people is seen in the context of its development and spread in West Africa.From the beginning therefore, Muslims established an inner nexus between Islam and the indigenous culture.Through the intensive missionary ventures of Muslim reformers, Islam became dominant and influential religion in the social,political and economic structures of Ghana and the Akan states.
Many theories in the social sciences predict spatial dependence or the similarity of behaviors at neighboring locations. Spatial Analysis for the Social Sciences demonstrates how researchers can diagnose and model this spatial dependence and draw more valid inferences as a result. The book is structured around the well-known Galton's problem and presents a step-by-step guide to the application of spatial analysis. The book examines a variety of spatial diagnostics and models through a series of applied examples drawn from the social sciences. These include spatial lag models that capture behavioral diffusion between actors, spatial error models that account for spatial dependence in errors, and models that incorporate spatial heterogeneity in the effects of covariates. Spatial Analysis for the Social Sciences also examines advanced spatial models for time-series cross-sectional data, categorical and limited dependent variables, count data, and survival data.
All countries share a common interest in the health and well-being of its citizens. The approach that countries take to achieve the goal of a healthy population is varied. Most countries utilize some form of universal health coverage (insurance) or universal health care. Since independence Ghana has had several health insurance systems. In 2006 the government implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme which provided for universal health care for all citizens funded by a combination of taxes. To date there has been no analysis of the effect of this program. The current analysis evaluated the health services utilization by residents of Mampong Municipality. This analysis used a time series (ARIMA)approach. Results indicated that discharges for diabetes increased for males. Diarrhea and malaria discharges increased in females but not in males. Diabetes discharges increased in males but not females. Typhoid discharges increased in males and females. These results should be followed by qualitative research to elucidate the mechanisms of the healthcare seeking decision processes of males and females in Ghana.
Malaria cases and its consequent deaths have been predominant unsolved public health issues in Thailand. Malaria transmits through three possible mediums; malaria parasite, human hosts, and Anopheles mosquito. One possible way to solve the malaria problem is to have intervention on any of these mediums. This study focuses on Anopheles mosquito medium, a part of the malaria transmission cycle. As the malaria control methods depend on many setting-specific factors such as endemic, vector species and behavior, seasonality, disease patterns, health service factors and more, which they have not been distributed equally in spatial, therefore the accuracy of these predicted information at timely manner are necessary requirements for effective malaria control planning and preparations. Thus, increasing of spatial accuracy and information updates on the vector density are the main issues for the malaria control. In order to support these requirements, Geo-informatics technology is used to develop the model for predicting Anopheles mosquitoes, which is called “Anopheles Mosquito Density Predictive Model (AMDP model)”.
This book analysis the relationship between cash crop exports to the European Union from Ghana and its impact on the economic performance of Ghana. It is aimed at investigating the aftermath of the European Union Directive 2000/36/EC on the Economic development of Ghana by observing the trend in GDP of Ghana. The book provides an insight to policy makers, academicians and for all interested persons about the trade relations of Ghana and European Union. Furthermore, the book provides comparison of the trend in economic growth before and after the implementation of European Union Directive. Econometric and Statistical analysis of secondary data from sources such as International Financial Statistics, International Monetary Fund and the World Bank countries indicators is done. The results is analyzed to draw logical conclusions and recommendations of the work.
Field experiments in agronomy and related disciplines have traditionally been affected by soil heterogeneity. This is because the soil characteristics are typically non-random and show fertility trend, spatial autocorrelation or periodicity. In the same way that spatial modeling is getting popular, robust designs which utilize spatial information are now common. Spatial variation in fertility, moisture, intercepted light, and other environmental factors can bias variety contrasts and inflate residual variation. This book,therefore,is to evaluate the efficiency of spatial statistical analysis in field trials and, particularly,to demonstrate the benefits of the approach when experimental observations are spatially dependent. Three different data sets taken from Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization were used for the analysis. The analysis should help agronomists and any one else who may be want to analyze spatially related data.
The transmission of malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. From the total area of Ethiopia, more than 75% is malarious. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic risk factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. To achieve this objective, different statistical methods were developed. These Statistical methods are Surveylogistic, Generalized Linear Mixed models (GLMM), Spatial Statistics, Joint models, Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMM) and the Rasch model. The result from these analyses identified that poor socio-economic conditions are the main causes for malaria problem. Therefore, improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Moreover, with other control measures, including creating awareness about the use of mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS), the number of malaria cases can be reduced. In general, these models will significantly contribute in monitoring and control, and eventual possible malaria eradication efforts in Africa.