Freedom and equality of faiths and Weltanschauungen can find their maximum development within the context of a legal order based on freedom of conscience and separation of state and church that presupposes mutual cooperation between governmental and religious institutions, especially in the area of welfare and social concerns. This overall framework has served Germany well, and with certain modifications to fit the Russian situation, it can serve Russia as well.
Blood diamonds, or “conflict diamonds,” have funded rebel movements and terrorist organizations worldwide. Bloodshed over these diamonds, the conflicts they prolonged, and the horrific human rights violations associated with the competition for this natural resource, resulted in an international effort to regulate rough diamonds, and has become an issue for states, institutions, NGOs, media, and the public. Forums were held in 2001, known as the Kimberley Process, to discuss the threat of blood diamonds. With the United Nations’ support, state and non-state actors devised the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, a non-binding agreement to stop the import and export of conflict diamonds. This book examines the utility of four International Relations theories to help explain the existing cooperation of governments, industry, and civil society to address this problem.
In the late 1980s, the concept of embedded autonomy became central to the literature of economic development in East Asia. Rapid economic growth in South Korea, Taiwan and Japan was attributed to the state role in development (Johnson 1982, Wade 1990, Evans 1985). The state embedded itself in the social networks of the entrepreneurs. This model of the developmental state credit that the success in East Asia to the state''s structure and role in prioritizing the achievement of rapid economic development as a national goal, exerting control over private capital, and acquiring a strong administrative bureaucracy that was built on merit and protected from political influence (Polidano 1998, Wade 1992, Evans et al 1985, Henderson and Appelbaum 1992). In the original formulation of the concept of embedded autonomy, the state embeds itself in the surrounding social networks and directs it to facilitate industrial transformation and thus, boost its economy. On the other extreme, the Egyptian case provides a contrary example to the Evans model when in the mid-1980s as a new phenomenon emerged where businessmen attempted to embed themselves within the state administration.
Powerful Relations – Kinship, Status & the State in Sung China (960–1279)
American Civil–Military Relations – The Soldier and the State in a New Era
American Civil–Military Relations – The Soldier and the State in a New Era
An Investigation in the theological discourse from medieval period to this day has proven that separating the church and state in peoples’ way of life is not only separating the heart and soul, but also removing the tissue from the bone hence leads to a futile exercise. It’s in this sense that the church should not only be the light of the state during the darkness, but also eyes to the state during the blindness. In fact, the church cannot be separated from the politics because religion and politics interpenetrate each other in the issues of personal and social life. For according to Alan Geyer: “Isolating religion and politics from each other is to threaten both mental health and obstruct social justice; to fuse religion and politics indiscriminately is to threaten both integrity of faith and the freedom of politics.” The question is therefore how far can the church involve herself in politics and how far can she search for peace, justice and reconciliation? We should not forget a word of wisdom from one of the famous guitarist by the name Jimi Hendrix who drives the point home that “It’s only when the power of love will overcome the love of power that we will have peace.”
The study sought to investigate possible conflict in the relationship between Church and State in the administration of Catholic secondary schools in Zimbabwe. For the sample, twenty-four randomly selected catholic secondary schools countrywide were used. The total number of respondents was 214 out of 260. Questionnaires and structured interviews were used for data collection. The data were examined and analyzed using frequency tables. The major findings of the study established that conflict between Church and State in education has a long history and cuts across all cultures. The degree of conflict is not static but varies from one country to another and with time. In Zimbabwe, conflict was found to exist in areas of staffing, promotions, curriculum and decision making. The State has more power in all the areas of administration in secondary schools. Church and State are in partnership, though the terms are not written down. The Church wants a greater say in decision making. Awareness of the differences and scope of partnership between Church and State is important when evaluating claims that the Church builds and maintains schools and the State staffs, promotes and dictates po
A comprehensive overview of the study of church and state, the twenty-one essays included in this Handbook present a scholarly look at the intricacies and past and current debates that frame the American system of church and state, within five main areas: history, law, theology/philosophy, politics, and sociology. These essays provide factual accounts, but also examine issues, problems, debates, controversies, and, where appropriate, suggest resolutions. They also offer analysis of the range of interpretations of the relationship between church and state offered by various American scholars.
In the early 1970s the Brazilian government promoted the colonization of a vast area in the state of Para. A few years later the government withdrew its support to the settlers. Abandoned, the peasantry started organizing in Catholic communities, a movement that grew and engaged in a successful struggle to democratize labor unions in the countryside. Their struggle culminated in the creation of a unique credit policy designed to support poor farmers who do not have title to their lands. Constructing the image of the peasantry as environmentally responsible farmers was crucial to gain access to subsidized credit. The outcomes of this credit policy however, challenged this identity. Credit recipients invested the money in cattle and cleared forest for pasture. Another unforeseen consequence of this policy was the appearance of hundreds of new peasant associations in the region. Rather than strengthening the peasant movement, these associations served the interests of local bosses, state officials, and large ranchers, who gained political and economic power using public money. This association between state officials and private actors challenges the concept of state autonomy.
India regarded Southeast Asia as a priority area having its strategic, political, economic and cultural significance. For long India enjoyed cultural bonds with the countries of Southeast Asia. With the establishment of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) a most glorious chapter in the history of the Southeast Asian region had begun. In course of time it emerged as a successful regional organization. During cold war years India could not maintain its institutional linkages with ASEAN because of its national preoccupations and international priorities. In the post Cold War era India desired to engage with Southeast Asian countries and launched its Look East Policy. There upon India became a Sectoral Dialogue Partner of ASEAN in 1992, a Full Dialogue Partner in 1995 and a member of ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1996. Subsequently India also became a member in two sub regional groupings such as Bay of Bengal Initiative for multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) and Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC) enhancing its role in firming up India-ASEAN relations.
Intergovernmental relations (IGR) is commonly associated or even equated with federalism. Federalism is actually a system of intergovernmental relations. It deals with the anatomy of the governmental system while IGR take care of physiological aspect. There are many forces at work in the structuring of Public Administration in Nigeria. Perhaps the best way of understanding the contemporary Nigerian administrative state is to view it as a contest or tension between fragmentation and diversity on one hand and co-ordination and uniformity on the other. In this book, attempt is made to distinguish between intergovernmental relations and federalism. Effort is also made to trace the evolution of federalism and intergovernmental relations in Nigeria. The historical perspectives on federal-state relations is followed by objectives of intergovernmental relations, state creation and IGR and lastly the author gives an insightful assessment of Intergovernmental fiscal relations as well as its implications on Nigerian federalism.
This study seeks to investigate the trinitarian consistency of Dumitru Staniloae’s general ecclesiology, by use of a ‘perichoretic model of the church’, rooted in the patristic concept of trinitarian perichoresis, which describes the reciprocal interpenetration of the divine persons, based on their common divine ousia. Staniloae makes his eastern patristic understanding of the Trinity the foundation of his whole theological construction, including his ecclesiology. For him, the Church, as a theo-anthropic reality, is called to be an icon of the Trinity, a true reflection in space and time of the perichoretic relations existing eternally between the divine persons of the triune God. This calls for an ecclesiology that is rooted equally in Christology and in pneumatology, any imbalance in this dynamic leading, in Staniloae’s opinion, either to excessive institutionalism and authoritarianism or to exaggerated individualism and subjectivism. The trinitarian inconsistencies revealed by the investigation model we have used arise more from the characteristic clericalist and sacramentalist tendencies inherent to Orthodoxy in general, than from the particular nature of Staniloae’s theology.
Labour legislative reform is a recent phenomenon in the South Pacific Island countries and Fiji is not an exception to this phenomenon. Particularly to initiate such reforms there is essential need for cohesive cooperation of all the stakeholders so that new and reformed labour legislation is successfully implemented in organisations. The stakeholders will be able to contribute effectively only when they have in depth knowledge and understanding on newer legislation and the impact of such legislation on employment relations. In this context there is large gap in existing literature on awareness/knowledge of employers and managers on employment law and how this lack of knowledge affects the implementation of employment regulation in the South Pacific Island countries and more specifically in Fiji. This research seeks to fill this gap in the existing literature and provide knowledge and insight to scholars, practitioners, policy makers, aid donors to the Pacific Island countries and others who are interested in understanding the state of employment relations and employment law in the South Pacific Island countries and more precisely in Fiji.