The last decade has witnessed an unprecedentedly hyperactive Turkish foreign policy under the JDP administration, which has brought Turkey to the spotlight of world attention. The question “What is happening to Turkey?” has been raised many times by scholars of Turkish foreign policy in the West, some of whom have found a shift of axis in Turkish foreign policy. Yet, given the history of Turkish foreign policy one may claim that it is not a recent development since Turkish foreign policy has been going through a transformation process for quite a long time. This study argues this transformation may be traced back to as early as 1980, when Turkey started the liberalization of the Turkish economy, which opened Turkish society and the Turkish economy to the outside world. Since then, Turkish state identity and interests have been going through a massive transformation process in order to adapt to the profound changes that have taken place in Turkey and in the international arena. Consequently, Turkey’s foreign policy making culture has experienced a transformation from a Lockean culture based on rivalry and suspicion to a Kantian culture based on friendship and cooperation.
“Issues in contemporary Turkish foreign policy” represents a collection of academic works related with Turkish foreign politics at the beginning of the 21st century, with a special review of the foreign politics during the rule of AKP, based on the strategic depth doctrine of Ahmet Davutoglu. This book will contribute in great mass on the area of international relations, especially on the studies of Turkish foreign politics at the beginning of the 21st century and simultaneously will represent an important academic basis for future researches in this field.
Turkey is a natural energy bridge between the European energy market and the energy rich regions of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia, and it fully intends to use this geo-strategic position to its advantage and become a major regional energy hub. This goal shapes its foreign policy making it more pragmatic and resulting in a regional opening as well. The changes in its foreign policy due to energy interests are apparent in the case of Turkish-Russian relations. Through this case study, this thesis seeks to explain the foreign policy of energy transit countries better by introducing energy considerations as an addition to existing explanations for foreign policy change. The argument presented here is that recent Turkish-Russian rapprochement is partly the result of changed Turkish foreign policy posture due to energy transit considerations.
The main purpose of this study tackles the Kurdish question on Turkish Foreign Policy due to external and domestic challenges under the AKP (Justice and Development Party) government. By doing this, it explores what aspects/consequences of Turkish Foreign Policy have been affected by the Kurdish question. In this context, as title makes sense of importance of this study is to explore and analyse the Kurdish policy of the AKP government and its impacts on Turkish Foreign Policy in last decade. In this way, this study will deal with both the Kurdish policy of the AKP government and historical development process of the Kurdish movement in the Middle East. Further to this, it discusses the drastic changes of the Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East focusing on the Kurdish political movement and provides coverage of the contemporary foreign policy strategies and debates on the Kurdish issue which has emerged as a result of the popular uprisings' process.
The manuscript comprises an analysis of Turkish foreign policy – its roots, evolution and current state. The theoretical part encompasses description of foreign policy analysis as well as soft power theory. The next chapter is devoted to Turkish foreign policy, how it evolved and who are the main actors shaping it. The last part maintains a description of current state of affairs between Israel and Turkey. The topic is up-to-date since Turkey is deemed to be one of the most developed countries of the region. Comparison of Turkey and Israel gives the readers better perspective of understanding the problem of region, as both countries are perceived as democratic yet they do not cooperate fully in order to establish a peaceful order in their troubled and unstable neighbourhood.
Turkish foreign policy faced a paradigmatic transformation in foreign policy as well as domestic politics with respect to mentality, identity, style and rhetoric under Justice and Development Party (JDP-Adalet ve Kalk?nma Partisi-Ak Party) rule. This study also evaluates Turkey’s Middle East policy within the framework of public diplomacy under JDP governments. The ruling party initiated its Middle Eastern policy by highlighting its Muslim identity. Islamic identity opened space for Turkey in its Middle East policy on one hand, while it built the cultural foundation of racing to the top with a Turkey-inspired Islamic model through the country story rhetoric of the public diplomacy in the Muslim world. This public diplomacy and soft power was the most authentic aspect of the AKP government in foreign policy and implemented successfully between 2003-2011 in general and the soft power momentum of Turkey took place particularly between 2005-2010. However, as of 2011, that is with the Arab Spring process, the relations particularly with Syria came to a point of conflict from the soft power peak and it ended up with the fall of soft power in the Turkish foreign policy.
This book ‘Culture and Diplomacy: An Analysis of the impact of Culture on Nigeria’s foreign Policy’ simply examines how Nigeria has used her culture in promoting her foreign policy and external relations globally. The book also examines the 1988 cultural policy of Nigeria and how the policy has advertised Nigeria’s culture and her foreign image on a global dimension. It also appraised Nigeria’s Cultural Diplomacy effort on a global scale, through the various state policies and programmes of culture like the hosting of the annual Abuja Cultural Carnival and the Second Black Festival of Arts and Culture tagged Festac 77 among others and its post consolidation programme i.e the building of the Centre for Black African Arts and Civilization in 1978 that has placed Nigerian and indeed African culture on a global stage and has set a pace for her cultural diplomacy globally in this 21st century. The book is a must read for all who have interest in the area of Nigerian Culture, Diplomacy and her Foreign Policy Relations.
This study examines perspectives of the two influential U.S. think tanks, the Brookings Institution and the Council on Foreign Relations, on Turkish foreign policy under the leadership of the Justice and Development Party (JDP) from 2002 to 2010. It attempts to analyze the perceptions of the noted institutions about the JDP’s foreign policy by referencing their reports, articles, interviews and seminars. The study had four aims. First, it aims to analyze the JDP’s foreign policy in the eyes of the two think tanks. Second, it shows the objective of the two institutions for shaping the framework of the discussions on the United States-Turkey relations and Turkish foreign policy by emphasizing the epistemic community. Third, this thesis intends to clarify divergences and convergences in the perceptions of the two institutions. Fourth, it indicates the continuity, change and rupture in the JDP’s foreign policy choices from the viewpoint of the Brookings Institution and the Council on Foreign Relations. Consequently, the thesis states that “the given framework” in the relations between the United States and Turkey has been largely determined by the U.S.’ activities.
This innovative teaching text on United States foreign policy interprets the foreign policy decision-making process through the lens of political debate and exchange. It introduces historical developments and theories of U.S. foreign policy and engages students in the politics of the foreign policy process through innovative learning exercises. Features critical analysis of contemporary trends in U.S. foreign policy, including debates in the Obama administration, foreign policy and the 2012 presidential election, and reaction to the Arab Spring Written by an award-winning teacher-scholar in international relations, with extensive experience in both policy making and pedagogy Views foreign policy decision making through the lends of political debate Offers fresh perspectives on historical developments as well as surveying prominent foreign policy theories Includes new and innovative participatory learning exercises exploring a range of themes including executive/ legislature conflict Contains extensive teaching and learning applications, including discussion questions, document templates, worksheets, suggested readings, and links to web resources throughout
The purpose of this study is to present the neo-imperialist character of the Russian Foreign Policy and to identify Russia''s foreign policy levers towards post-Soviet countries since the collapse of the bipolar world order. The author attempts to find the reasons of it and to explore the issues that will be central to those relations in the years since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The foreign policy was examined in the Kremlin''s relations toward its Near Abroad in last twenty years. The work is aimed at the analysis of the following questions: How does Russia perceive the post-Soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union? What is the place of the former Soviet republics in the Russian debate on foreign policy and what are the objectives of Russian foreign policy in relation to those countries?
This thesis is designed to address the topic: ‘The development of a human rights culture in Vietnam, 1986 to present''. After 1986 reform policy (doi moi policy), the liberal culture of human rights has gradually gained ground as the result of both domestic and international factors. Two rights (the rights to property and the right to a fair trial) were selected for examination. From the findings of indepth investigation of advancement of these two rights, there is little doubt that the emergence of liberal culture of these rights has been established and become more dominant but s more reasonable conclusion for this thesis is that there is a hybrid human rights culture in Vietnam in the transitional phase which mixes successes and failures, and the liberal and socialist values.
1970-80 is an important period for Turkish political history. The uniqueness of the period not only comes from the reflections of the Cold War period in World Politics but also from the new ideological awakenings and social transformation of the society and Turkish political culture. Simultaneously, 70s Turkey evaluated multidimensional approach in foreign policy differentiating from previous terms indicating more revisionist policies in Cyprus and also relations with US. On the contrary to liberal framework of 1960 Constitution and relative wealth and development in 1960’s, the period ended with 12 March Memorandum. That would be a sign for the future restrictions and the conflicts till 1980 military coup. This research based on one main how these changes affect the decision-making mechanisms in domestic political events and how these effects shaped the Turkish foreign policy in 1970’s world.
Foreign policy is the result of complex interactions of different political fields. During the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War presented the dominating framework of international relations and United States foreign policy in particular. This context also influenced U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf, yet, the approaches of the different administrations from Eisenhower to George H. W. Bush were highly diverse. This book seeks to explain the broad developments and contents of U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf in the context of the Cold War. With regard to the constantly perceived Soviet threat, it intends to explain the foreign policy assumptions and strategies that have shaped American policies over the years and finally contributed to the terror attacks of September 11, 2001.
This book examines Nigerian Foreign Policy under Olugbenga Ashiru who had served as a foreign affairs minister to President Goodluck Jonathan. Its thrust is on the impact he had made both as a retired career ambassador and foreign affairs minister on the foreign policy during his tenure. The book agrees that the state of Nigerian Foreign Policy prior to his assumption of office was not a cheering one. Some issues especially African issues had come up with the country disappointing its citizens and their friends with its handling style. However,traceable to the efforts of Ashiru as the minister of foreign affairs, Nigeria had the opportunity of redressing some of the deficits in its foreign policy. This showed eloquently in Nigeria-South Africa relations, the Chinese ace and the improvement in the level of interface between Nigerian Foreign Policy and the citizens. Arising from his failures in office, the author raises some concerns for Olugbenga Ashiru's successors in office to address in improving the effectiveness of the country's foreign policy.
This book is about International Relations Theory. It argues that Neo-classical Realism gives a better explanation of world politics than the rest of themes of Realism. In addition, the book attempts to demonstrate this argument in the case shifting Turkish foreign policy after the Syrian crisis in 2011. Therefore, it addresses the real dynamics in which have led Turkey to threat to establish buffer zone in Syria. This includes the systemic constrains that are produced by the international system and the politics of great power, and the domestic politics inside the country, the domestic missile programs debate. Hopefully, you will obtain benefit after enjoy reading.
Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, American Foreign Policy focuses on foreign policy strategy as well as foreign policy politics. The heavily revised Fifth Edition offers greater emphasis on the role that domestic politics and institutions (both formal and informal) play in shaping American foreign policy. A consistent strategic framework (the four Ps: Power, Peace, Prosperity, and Principles) keeps students thinking analytically about policy decisions. And new chapters on key geopolitical regions apply the core concepts from both spheres to the issues that are most relevant today, including the rise of China, the consequences of the euro crisis, and the recent wars in the Middle East.