The last decade has witnessed an unprecedentedly hyperactive Turkish foreign policy under the JDP administration, which has brought Turkey to the spotlight of world attention. The question “What is happening to Turkey?” has been raised many times by scholars of Turkish foreign policy in the West, some of whom have found a shift of axis in Turkish foreign policy. Yet, given the history of Turkish foreign policy one may claim that it is not a recent development since Turkish foreign policy has been going through a transformation process for quite a long time. This study argues this transformation may be traced back to as early as 1980, when Turkey started the liberalization of the Turkish economy, which opened Turkish society and the Turkish economy to the outside world. Since then, Turkish state identity and interests have been going through a massive transformation process in order to adapt to the profound changes that have taken place in Turkey and in the international arena. Consequently, Turkey’s foreign policy making culture has experienced a transformation from a Lockean culture based on rivalry and suspicion to a Kantian culture based on friendship and cooperation.
Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, American Foreign Policy focuses on foreign policy strategy as well as foreign policy politics. The heavily revised Fifth Edition offers greater emphasis on the role that domestic politics and institutions (both formal and informal) play in shaping American foreign policy. A consistent strategic framework (the four Ps: Power, Peace, Prosperity, and Principles) keeps students thinking analytically about policy decisions. And new chapters on key geopolitical regions apply the core concepts from both spheres to the issues that are most relevant today, including the rise of China, the consequences of the euro crisis, and the recent wars in the Middle East.
Foreign policy is the result of complex interactions of different political fields. During the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War presented the dominating framework of international relations and United States foreign policy in particular. This context also influenced U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf, yet, the approaches of the different administrations from Eisenhower to George H. W. Bush were highly diverse. This book seeks to explain the broad developments and contents of U.S. foreign policy in the Persian Gulf in the context of the Cold War. With regard to the constantly perceived Soviet threat, it intends to explain the foreign policy assumptions and strategies that have shaped American policies over the years and finally contributed to the terror attacks of September 11, 2001.
"Fluent, well-timed, provocative. . . Filled with gritty, shrewd, specific advice on foreign policy ends and means. . . Gelb’s plea for greater strategic thinking is absolutely right and necessary." - The New York Times Book Review "Few Americans know the inner world of American foreign policy - its feuds, follies, and fashions - as well as Leslie H.Gelb. . . . Power Rules builds on that lifetime of experience with power and is a witty and acerbic primer." - The New York Times Power Rules is the provocative account of how to think about and use America’s power in the world, from Pulitzer Prize winner Leslie H. Gelb, one of the nation’s leading foreign policy minds and practitioners.
China has been rising in global political economy, and the twenty-first century may have marked the beginning of a ‘Chinese Century’, similar to the American Twentieth Century. The history of international politics is recurrently that of the rise and fall of hegemonic powers. To learn the lessons of history, Jittipat Poonkham critically studies the rise of America and a peaceful transition of Great Britain and the United States in the late nineteenth century. He argues that the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a pivotal moment in a great transformation of US foreign policy and identity. American expansionism was possible not only due to the transformative roles of American expansionists (such as Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and John Hay) but also because of the emerging intersubjective understandings and shared ideas between British and American hegemonies.
Turkish foreign policy faced a paradigmatic transformation in foreign policy as well as domestic politics with respect to mentality, identity, style and rhetoric under Justice and Development Party (JDP-Adalet ve Kalk?nma Partisi-Ak Party) rule. This study also evaluates Turkey’s Middle East policy within the framework of public diplomacy under JDP governments. The ruling party initiated its Middle Eastern policy by highlighting its Muslim identity. Islamic identity opened space for Turkey in its Middle East policy on one hand, while it built the cultural foundation of racing to the top with a Turkey-inspired Islamic model through the country story rhetoric of the public diplomacy in the Muslim world. This public diplomacy and soft power was the most authentic aspect of the AKP government in foreign policy and implemented successfully between 2003-2011 in general and the soft power momentum of Turkey took place particularly between 2005-2010. However, as of 2011, that is with the Arab Spring process, the relations particularly with Syria came to a point of conflict from the soft power peak and it ended up with the fall of soft power in the Turkish foreign policy.
The Parliament of 1624 – Politics & Foreign Policy
The end of the Cold War led to a dramatic and fundamental change in the foreign policy of the United States. In Mission Failure, Michael Mandelbaum, one of America's leading foreign-policy thinkers, provides an original, provocative, and definitive account of the ambitious but deeply flawed post-Cold War efforts to promote American values and American institutions throughout the world.In the decades before the Cold War ended the United States, like virtually every other country throughout history, used its military power to defend against threats to important American international interests or to the American homeland itself. When the Cold War concluded, however, it embarked on military interventions in places where American interests were not at stake. Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia and Kosovo had no strategic or economic importance for the United States, which intervened in all of them for purely humanitarian reasons. Each such intervention led to efforts to transform the local political and economic systems. The invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, launched in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, turned into similar missions of transformation. None of them achieved its aims.Mission Failure describes and explains how such missions came to be central to America's post-Cold War foreign policy, even in relations with China and Russia in the early 1990s and in American diplomacy in the Middle East, and how they all failed. Mandelbaum shows how American efforts to bring peace, national unity, democracy, and free-market economies to poor, disorderly countries ran afoul of ethnic and sectarian loyalties and hatreds and foundered as well on the absence of the historical experiences and political habits, skills, and values that Western institutions require.The history of American foreign policy in the years after the fall of the Berlin Wall is, he writes, "the story of good, sometimes noble, and thoroughly American intentions coming up against the deeply embedded, often harsh, and profoundly un-American realities of places far from the United States. In this encounter the realities prevailed."
Turkey is a natural energy bridge between the European energy market and the energy rich regions of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia, and it fully intends to use this geo-strategic position to its advantage and become a major regional energy hub. This goal shapes its foreign policy making it more pragmatic and resulting in a regional opening as well. The changes in its foreign policy due to energy interests are apparent in the case of Turkish-Russian relations. Through this case study, this thesis seeks to explain the foreign policy of energy transit countries better by introducing energy considerations as an addition to existing explanations for foreign policy change. The argument presented here is that recent Turkish-Russian rapprochement is partly the result of changed Turkish foreign policy posture due to energy transit considerations.
This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies.
This book examines Nigerian Foreign Policy under Olugbenga Ashiru who had served as a foreign affairs minister to President Goodluck Jonathan. Its thrust is on the impact he had made both as a retired career ambassador and foreign affairs minister on the foreign policy during his tenure. The book agrees that the state of Nigerian Foreign Policy prior to his assumption of office was not a cheering one. Some issues especially African issues had come up with the country disappointing its citizens and their friends with its handling style. However,traceable to the efforts of Ashiru as the minister of foreign affairs, Nigeria had the opportunity of redressing some of the deficits in its foreign policy. This showed eloquently in Nigeria-South Africa relations, the Chinese ace and the improvement in the level of interface between Nigerian Foreign Policy and the citizens. Arising from his failures in office, the author raises some concerns for Olugbenga Ashiru's successors in office to address in improving the effectiveness of the country's foreign policy.
The purpose of this study is to present the neo-imperialist character of the Russian Foreign Policy and to identify Russia''s foreign policy levers towards post-Soviet countries since the collapse of the bipolar world order. The author attempts to find the reasons of it and to explore the issues that will be central to those relations in the years since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The foreign policy was examined in the Kremlin''s relations toward its Near Abroad in last twenty years. The work is aimed at the analysis of the following questions: How does Russia perceive the post-Soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union? What is the place of the former Soviet republics in the Russian debate on foreign policy and what are the objectives of Russian foreign policy in relation to those countries?