Solid waste infrastructure management service in Nekemte town of Oromia Regional State (Ethiopia) is generally handled by the private waste collectors through contractual arrangement with the municipality which is not adequate. Hence the coverage of solid waste management services should be expanded up to cent percent population and geographical area of the town. However, strong control and monitoring mechanisms are required to be in place for effective solid waste infrastructure management. It is expected that with increase in population size and industrialization, solid waste management would be a major problem for the municipality in the future. In order to mitigate the consequent health and environmental impacts, the solid waste infrastructure management problems have to be properly addressed.
The magnitude of investment, the long time-frames involved and the influence of pre-existing infrastructure on urban infrastructure provision make a co-ordinated approach to forward-planning, policy development and implementation essential. There are major challenges in making decisions on urban infrastructure and getting management structures and processes in place. Getting it right generates long-term dividends; getting it wrong involves major costs, often borne by taxpayers. Urban Infrastructure: finance and management is posited on a strong belief that the physical structure of cities and the efficiency of infrastructure services delivered are driven by efficiencies within individual infrastructure sectors, lessons learnt across these sectors and the ability to co-ordinate and integrate sectors to generate economies of scale. This necessitates an interdisciplinary approach, integrating knowledge from finance, governance, planning and management as well as the characteristics of the individual urban infrastructure sectors involved. Here it is not only about getting the initial decisions and policy settings right, but also ensuring effective implementation. A major theme running through the book is the nature of institutions and the governance structures responsible for delivery and management of urban infrastructure and the decision making processes involved. The editors have taken a deliberately pragmatic approach to the finance and management of urban infrastructure; chapters are cross-sectorial and present both theory and practice. This book is for students and practitioners in policy, planning, urban management, infrastructure finance and management.
"Solid Waste Routing by Exploiting Ant Colony Optimization" is a new work which is influenced by the problem arising now a days by the solid waste generated in metro (big) cities. The waste generated on daily bases creates a lot of problem in environment. Solid Waste Management has evolved as a complex discipline in the last decades. One key subsystem of solid waste management is designing vehicle routes with all the realistic constraints. The basic problem consists of collecting garbage house by house and, therefore street by street. The management of urban solid waste is intrinsically complex, because it involves various relative factors, which are often in conflict. Moreover, given that this solution cannot be reduced easily to the optimization, a formal multi-criteria urban waste management approach is needed.
The growth of cities, technological advancement and industrial growth have witnessed high level of solid waste generation particularly in cities of developing countries. This has led to mushrooming of slums and an increased number of the urban poor who lack proper shelter, food and income. Most of them eke a living by collecting and selling recyclable inorganic solid waste to dealers. The main question that the author endeavours to answer is: What are the dynamics of inorganic solid waste trading by the urban poor? Therefore, this book investigates inorganic solid waste trading and challenges faced by the urban poor in the process of trading in recyclable inorganic solid waste in Nairobi City, Kenya. Dr. Wanyonyi opines that inorganic solid waste management in modern cities in Africa needs to be strengthened and implemented so as to improve the living conditions of the urban poor. In this regard, she observes that the trading should encourage community participation that targets the urban poor. The book is a must-read for scholars, researchers, NGOs and planners engaged in the management and planning of solid waste in modern cities and settlements for the urban poor.
Waste Management starts with you and me..., "sustainable waste management for a healthy and vital Human and green Environment". In the context of urban sprawl and increasing use of solid waste, waste is becoming a global menace contributing slowly to thermal climate change at micro level, which indirectly and directly in long run, impacts the life of the society, the paper examines role of community in waste generation and management, by comparing high density and low density settlements. Critically examines and evaluate roles played by both sides and proposes best waste management strategies for a green and resilience society.
In in adequate solid waste management is certainly one of the major contributing factors degrading the urban environment quality in Gambia. Strategic Environmental Assessment helps decision makers reach a better understanding of how environmental, social and economic considerations merge together. The study found that the residents of the municipality were reasonably aware of the benefits of proper solid waste management in relation to health, aesthetic value and tourism with regards to clean environment which needs to be enhanced. Significant challenges that need to be addressed in the future include inter among others: greater environmental awareness, waste monitoring, proper enforcement of waste related legislation and encouraging public participation in addressing waste management in The Gambia for a clean and healthy for environment for all to cherish.
The increasing problem of higher population density in the metro cities and subsequent increase in the waste generation has created a severe problem of its disposal. Dumping of the solid waste in urban areas is a big problem as the land availability is not enough. If the proper management of this solid waste is done we can get rid of the problem up to a certain extent As well as its hazardous effects may not be overlooked. In NCR alone it is nearly 10,000MT per day. Solid waste in a typical composition has food waste, paper, card board, wood and some trace of mix metals. In different countries different methods of energy generation from solid waste have been tried out in different phases. Solid waste has a good potential for energy generation in the form of RDF, Methane gas and also by composting.This dissertation is focused on Solid waste management and possibilities of energy extraction from municipal solid waste. The local bodies in urban areas are seriously taking up the problem. The efforts are being made to utilize the solid waste by composting it as well as establishing the project for producing energy out of the land fills. Still it is not being done to its full potential.
At present, municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a serious problem in many developing countries. This is mainly the rapid population growth and the high rural to urban migrations. The insufficient collection and inappropriate disposal of solid waste contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and therefore different alternatives for the management have to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. This study focused on potential GHGs emissions reduction options of municipal solid waste treatment so as to propose as a clean development mechanism (CDM) strategy and its environmental and economic impacts on solid waste management. Different disposal options (i.e. landfilling, composting and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed.
In any solid waste management study information on households’ waste management is very critical. Since the lion share of the municipal solid waste (76%) is contributed from residential houses assessing this part will contribute much for the overall management of the municipal solid waste management. in parallel with this, the quantity of solid waste generated in low-income areas is often assumed to be less than the solid waste generated in high-income neighborhoods but significant solid waste mismanagement identified in low-income area. Thus the study aimed at to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of low-income households
In Pakistan the proper management of solid waste is decisive to the health and well-being of urban inhabitants. In most cities of Pakistan, several tons of garbage is left uncollected on the streets and open areas each day, which becomes the sources of a feeding ground for pests and insects that spread environmental hazardous and disease, clogging drains and creating a myriad of related health and infrastructural problems in city. There is a dire need to play an important role in formulating an environmental policy that boost up effective and efficient solid waste management practices in Pakistan. Proper management of solid waste would improve local government effectiveness and efficiency, and well established MSWM mechanism will reduce health diseases in Pakistan.
Urban solid waste management (USWM) problems facing cities in the developed and developing workd are well documented; however, progress in tackling them is very slow in the latter. There are still many communities, neighbourhoods, and local markets where garbage is not collected for a considerable length of time. Many of the affected houses are situated in poor neighbourhoos on the edges and core areas of cities. This book seeks to place the concept of social capital in the practice of urban solid waste management, especially at the community level as well as on a wider philosophical and policy levels. The intention here is to advance the understanding of social capital both in relation to its nature as a quality of community life and in terms of its significance as an instrument in the hands of the agents of change. The book examined the degree to which social capital and community-based organizations are important in the overall functioning of urban solid waste management at the community level in Ibadan, Nigeria. This book will be of interest to professional planners working in the area of environmental management, students,lecturers and policy makers.
Rapid industrialization, urbanization and population growth Management of solid waste in India’s growing urban areas is a challenging problem. Current practices of unscientific dumping of domestic waste have created serious environmental and public health concerns. This study attempts to study municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in the capital city of Uttar Pradesh- Lucknow, by a primary survey of 150 households segregated on the basis of income and settlement profile The entire study area was divided as a (low income group), B (medium income group) and (high income group) as the living standard goes up consumption of paper and plastic also goes up. So, quantity of solid waste increases in higher societies. Prevailing scenario of waste handling practices & disposal is an alarming problem encountered by many of the urban & industrial area. Thus an integrated solid waste management in sustainable approach is presented as response to necessary waste management strategy needs therefore efforts should be made by active participation of community, public & private agencies to solve this problem.
This book mainly focuses on assessment of existing municipal solid waste management methods with especial emphasis to bio-recycling/composting activities undertaken by NGOs and private organizations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The book will be found to be of practical value to policy makers, scholars, researchers and urban development planers. Samuel Leykun (senior Lecturer at Mada Walabu University)
Uncontrolled growth of the urban population in developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue, so the system for collection of solid waste thus constitutes an important component of an effective solid waste management system. In present study describes an attempt is made to design and develop an appropriate collection plan by Geographical Information System (GIS) software for the Laxmi Nagar at Nagpur, a Orange city in Maharashtra, India. A GIS optimal routing model was designed for efficient collection path for municipal solid waste to minimum time, labour, distance efficient collection paths for the solid wastes. A present study is also aimed to proposed location of community BIN. The total cost of the proposed collection systems is estimated to be around 3,52,225 rupees for the annual operating cost of municipal solid waste collection. A substantial amount 4,03,200 rupees is currently being spent by Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC )on waste collection alone without any proper storage/collection system.
Currently preventive methods rather than curative means are best approach for community health. Having good solid health-care waste management in every health-care center is inevitable. This book focuses on five systematically selected sample hospitals. The main objective is to assess solid health-care waste management trend, and recommend proper treatment as well as disposal mechanisms. In selected sample hospitals, solid waste was collected for one week from randomly selected beds. From the data collected the mean waste generation rate for the whole city,private and governmental hospitals was estimated using different statistical methods. On top of this, proper on site sorting was done for proximate analysis to seven waste categories. Based on this analysis the maximum infected hospital waste in the city was estimated. Additionally, an attempt is done to address the overall solid waste management trend through the routes to disposal. Possible Environmental, health and social impacts are identified for every waste management route. Finally, based on the results and findings of the study, proper solid waste management, treatment and disposal recommendations are forwarded.
The increase of the population is often so fast that the delivery of basic services, such as water supply, sanitation and waste removal cannot keep up. Unemployment, growing poverty and deterioration of the environment are related problems to urban expansion with an increasing population, the amounts of waste generated are consequently growing. The objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of urban agriculture in dealing with household organic waste within a peri-urban area, such as Manyatta, in Kisumu The research found out that the use of Urban Agriculture in dealing with household organic waste is still poor in Manyatta as tonnes go to waste though burning and being thrown at the backyard. Organic waste, which constituted 70% of the solid waste produced, if innovatively composed or used directly for urban agriculture, it can help solve solid waste management problem and improve urban food security especially in informal settlements. The outcome of the study should help bring to light the treasure hidden in organic waste, which has been poorly harnessed especially in the developing countries and has resulted into various environmental problems.